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Isis

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Lezione sull'Isis per studenti della scuola secondaria.

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Isis

  1. 1. ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) → acronimo arabo: Dā ishʿ dal giugno 2014 (Califfato) → IS (Islamic State)
  2. 2. La bandiera nera dell’IS riporta in alto la prima parte della professione di fede musulmana («Non c’è altro Dio se non Allah»), nel cerchio bianco la seconda («Muhammad è il suo profeta»).
  3. 3. Glossario minimo Jihad: la «guerra santa» di cui si parla nel Corano; secondo l’interpretazione degli integralisti, è da intendersi come un vero e proprio scontro armato contro tutti i non musulmani. Sunnismo: corrente maggioritaria dell’Islam, comprende circa il 90% della popolazione musulmana. Sciismo: corrente minoritaria dell’Islam, è però prevalente in Iran; sono sciiti i governi di Siria e Iraq, in cui però la maggioranza della popolazione è sunnita. La divisione tra sunniti e sciiti ebbe origine dopo la morte di Muhammad a proposito della sua successione: per elezione (sunniti) o per discendenza (sciiti)? A questa controversia si aggiunsero nel tempo anche differenze di carattere teologico.
  4. 4. In una prima fase, i jihadisti hanno cercato di impadronirsi di uno Stato già esistente (tentativi in Sudan, Afghanistan, Yemen, etc.), la cosiddetta «lotta al nemico vicino», mentre al Qaeda concentrava la «guerra al nemico lontano» (Paesi occidentali); ↓ con la morte di Bin Laden (2011) e la dispersione dei capi di al Qaeda, ha prevalso un’altra strategia: la creazione ex novo di uno Stato islamico in territori di scarsa coesione (forti scontenti sociali, deboli relazioni col governo centrale).
  5. 5. Perché l’Iraq? •Dopo le due guerre del Golfo (1990-91 e 2003), dovute la prima all’invasione irachena del Kuwait, la seconda all’attacco alle Torri Gemelle, e la cattura di Saddam Hussein (condannato a morte nel 2006), nel Paese si stanzia una forza militare internazionale (USA, Regno Unito, Italia, Polonia, Australia) per garantire nuove elezioni e una nuova costituzione; •nel 2011 ritiro della coalizione; da allora forte instabilità interna, scontri fra gli sciiti al governo e i sunniti, perdita del controllo sui territori nord-occidentali.
  6. 6. Perché la Siria? •Dal 2011 il Paese è devastato dalla guerra civile fra le forze governative del presidente Bashar al-Asad, sciita del partito laico Ba’th, e le forze dell’opposizione sunnita; •entrambi gli schieramenti godono dell’appoggio, diretto o indiretto, di altre nazioni; •nel conflitto sono coinvolte anche le milizie armate curde (peshmerga), il cui scopo è difendere la comunità curda nel nord della Siria.
  7. 7. Sono quattro milioni i siriani che hanno lasciato la Siria nei quattro anni e mezzo del conflitto che ha determinato la morte di circa 200mila persone.
  8. 8. Nel giugno 2014 il leader dell’IS Abū Bakr al-Baghdādī annuncia la nascita del Califfato → il termine rimanda volutamente ai primi secoli dell’Islam e all’espansione sotto i califfi, successori di Muhammad.
  9. 9. • Lo Stato Islamico fa leva sul sentimento di umiliazione dei sunniti, rispolverando elementi etnico-religiosi per una popolazione che era tra le più laiche e istruite del Medio Oriente, prima delle guerre e degli embarghi. • All’esterno, l’IS individua il «nemico» nei Paesi occidentali e nella Russia: la propaganda, le decapitazioni di ostaggi e gli attentati terroristici hanno lo scopo di diffondere il terrore e spingere gli occidentali a rinunciare alla loro presenza in Medio Oriente e, in generale, al coinvolgimento nei conflitti della regione. Gli obiettivi
  10. 10. A differenza dei talebani, contrari alla tecnologia, l’IS utilizza internet, riprese digitali, strumenti di storytelling e social media per diffondere il suo messaggio ai giovani jihadisti, anche europei → fenomeno dei foreign fighters Gli strumenti
  11. 11. Sono soprattutto giovani immigrati di seconda o terza generazione, con problemi di disoccupazione e/o difficoltà di integrazione, ma anche occidentali convertiti, reclutati in luoghi fisici (carceri, moschee radicali) e su Internet.
  12. 12. I finanziatori • Per le intelligence occidentali l’IS è l'organizzazione islamista più ricca al mondo, con un patrimonio stimato più di 2 miliardi di dollari. • I finanziatori sono principalmente Stati a governo sunnita e ricchi di petrolio, come Arabia Saudita e Qatar, ma complicità finanziarie ed economiche esistono anche con la Turchia, alleata dell’Occidente e nemica del governo di Assad in Siria. In questi Paesi si organizzano raccolte di fondi da parte di privati cittadini, imprese e banche. • Altre fonti di finanziamento sono i pozzi di petrolio (circa 50 milioni di dollari al mese) e il commercio di opere d’arte, insieme a rapine e sequestri.
  13. 13. La rete del Califfato e i principali attacchi del 2015 fonte: Corriere della Sera 16/11/2015
  14. 14. Le vittime nel 2015 fonte: Corriere della Sera 16/11/2015
  15. 15. FONTI M. Giro, Parigi: il branco di lupi, lo Stato Islamico e quello che possiamo fare limesonline.com, 14/11/2015 http://www.limesonline.com/parigi-il-branco-di-lupi-lo-stato-islamico-e-quello-che- possiamo-fare/87990?ref=mlpl Id, La sfida che ci lancia lo Stato Islamico, limesonline.com, 29/12/2014 http://www.limesonline.com/la-sfida-che-ci-lancia-lo-stato-islamico/67586 G. Cuscito, Chi sono e da dove vengono i foreign fighters, limesonline.com, 10/03/2015 http://www.limesonline.com/chi-sono-e-da-dove-vengono-i-foreign-fighters/76298 M. Pompili, Isis, i guadagni (intoccabili) del petrolio, lettera43.it, 15/11/2015 http://www.lettera43.it/economia/macro/isis-i-guadagni-intoccabili-del- petrolio_43675220912.htm#.VkmV1KnBqBU.twitter L. Steinmann, Franco Cardini: «Ecco chi finanzia il Califfato», L’Espresso, 15/11/2015 http://m.espresso.repubblica.it/plus/articoli/2015/06/29/news/ecco-chi-finanzia-il- califfato-1.219189

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