Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Developing Enterprise Applications for the Cloud, from Monolith to Microservices


Published on

Presented at IBM InterConnect 2105. Is your next enterprise application ready for the cloud? Do you know how to build the kind of low-latency, highly available, highly scalable, omni-channel, micro-service modern-day application that customers expect? This introductory presentation will cover what it takes to build such an application using the multiple language runtimes and composing services offered on IBM Bluemix cloud.

Published in: Software

Developing Enterprise Applications for the Cloud, from Monolith to Microservices

  1. 1. © 2015 IBM Corporation Developing Enterprise Applications for the Cloud, from Monolith to Microservices David Currie Jack Cai
  2. 2. Agenda • What are microservices? • Developing and deploying microservices • Migrating to a microservices architecture 1
  3. 3. What are Microservices? 2
  4. 4. Microservices Defined • Application architected as a suite of small services, each running in its own process, and communicating with lightweight mechanisms e.g. REST/HTTP • Services built around business capabilities • Each service independently deployable via automation • Minimal centralised governance • May be written in different languages • May use different data storage technologies 3
  5. 5. Contrast with a Monolithic Architecture Monolithic Microservice Architecture Built as a single logical executable (typically the server-side part of a three tier client- server-database architecture) Built as a suite of small services, each running separately and communicating with lightweight mechanisms Modularity Based on language features Based on business capabilities Agility Changes to the system involve building and deploying a new version of the entire application Changes can be applied to each service independently Scaling Entire application scaled horizontally behind a load-balancer Each service scaled independently when needed Implementation Typically written in one language Each service implemented in the language that best fits the need Maintainability Large code base intimidating to new developers Smaller code base easier to manage Transaction ACID BASE 4
  6. 6. Componentization via Services • Component is a unit of software that is independently replaceable and upgradeable • Libraries are components that are linked in to a program and called used in-memory function calls • Services are out-of-process components who communication, for example, via web service requests or RPC • Unlike libraries, services can be independently redeployed • Using a service results in an explicit published interface • Remote calls are more expense leading to coarser-grained APIs • A service may consist of multiple processes e.g. the application process, cache, and associated database 5
  7. 7. Organized around Business Capabilities • Monolithic project teams are often aligned around technology layers meaning even simple changes involve multiple teams Any organization that designs a system (defined broadly) will produce a design whose structure is a copy of the organization's communication structure – Melvyn Conway, 1967 • Organize services around business capabilities results in cross- functional teams • Typically those teams are small (Amazon “Two pizza team”) but don’t get hung up on the ‘micro’ • Strong tie-in to DevOps: each team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of its service 6
  8. 8. Smart Endpoints and Dumb Pipes • Historically there has been an emphasis on putting intelligence (e.g. routing, transformation and even choreography) in to the communications channel e.g. Enterprise Service Bus • Microservices communicate directly using simple protocols such as REST/HTTP and AMQP • Significant differentiator from what we traditionally think of in a SOA architecture • Try to avoid versioning by making services and clients tolerant to changes • API Gateway (used to consolidate multiple client calls) somewhat contrary to this 7
  9. 9. Decentralization • Decentralized governance • Monoliths tend to standardise on a single technology platform whereas it may be appropriate to use different tools (e.g. languages or databases) for different parts of an application • With microservices, ‘standardisation’ is through sharing of common code/tools • Decentralized data management • Each service owns its own data model and data • Coordination between services must be transaction-less (use eventual consistency and compensation) 8
  10. 10. Microservice Challenges • Greater operational complexity – more moving parts • Devs need significant ops skills • Service interfaces and versioning • Duplication of effort across service implementations • Additional complexity of creating a distributed system – network latency, fault tolerance, serialization, … • Designing decoupled non-transactional systems is hard • Avoiding latency overhead of large numbers of small service invocations • Locating service instances • Maintaining availability and consistency with partitioned data • End-to-end testing 9
  11. 11. Developing and Deploying Microservices 10
  12. 12. Reducing Operational Complexity • Platform-as-a-Service exists to remove the complexity of deploying applications – the PaaS provider also handles the complexity of managing and monitoring the infrastructure • Cloud Foundry provides a consistent deployment mechanism regardless of programming language • Buildpacks ensure that applications are kept up-to-date with new versions of the runtime and libraries • Routing and load balancing handled by Cloud Foundry router • Service dependencies are resolved at deployment time • Repeatable deployment through IBM DevOps Services or CLI, Maven/Gradle/Travis/Jenkins plugins (you can even run Jenkins on Cloud Foundry!) • Cloud Foundry V3 API to allow multiple processes per app 11
  13. 13. Service Discovery • Within a Cloud Foundry environment, routes and the CF router provide all that is needed to locate a service instance • Cloud Controller manages distribution and availability of application instances • Blue-green deployments supported by binding multiple application versions to the same route • cf cups (create user provided service) provides a convenient mechanism to inform one microservice of the route for a microservice on which it is dependent • Where instances of a microservice are deployed to multiple Cloud Foundry environments, consider using a runtime registry e.g. Eureka or highly-available data store e.g. etcd or Zookeeper 12
  14. 14. Configuration • The same application should be deployable in to multiple environments – don’t build configuration in to the application • Environment variables are a simple mechanism portable across most runtimes and cloud and non-cloud environments • Cloud Foundry provides the ability to set environment variables in the manifest at push time or subsequently via cf set-env • Netflix Archaius provides a mechanism to poll a hierarchy of configuration sources • Property files and URLs out of the box but other configuration sources are pluggable 13
  15. 15. Design for Failure • Any service call could fail where failure could be anything from an immediate error code to never returning – need to handle that gracefully • Emphasis on real-time monitoring of technical and business metrics • Application monitoring through Monitoring and Analytics service or third-party service e.g. New Relic • Gives insights which might not be uncovered in a monolithic application • Implement patterns from ‘Release It!’ e.g. via Netflix Hystrix • Circuit Breaker – protect from downstream failures • Bulkhead – limit resources that can be consumed • Timeout • Testing for failures: Simian Army 14
  16. 16. Communication Protocols • Cloud Foundry currently only supports inbound HTTP • Web sockets is an option in preference to long polling • JSON may be the best fit for client facing services but consider other options such as Apache Thrift or Google Protocol Buffers where serialization efficiency is important • Typically start with synchronous protocols and add asynchronous (e.g. via MQ Light) where needed to support the interaction style or performance goals • Parallel invocation of downstream services may be required to ensure responsiveness is maintained • Consider using a reactive programming model (e.g. RxJava) or Java 8’s CompletableFuture 15
  17. 17. Securing Microservices • Cloud Foundry applications are all public facing (Application Security Groups introduced in the CF 1.3 release relate to outbound traffic) • Normal rules apply e.g. basic authentication and authorisation as a starting point • Bluemix Single Sign On service provides a simple mechanism to use an existing identity source or Bluemix based user registry for SSO 16
  18. 18. Testing Strategies • • Unit testing inside a microservice • Integration testing between a microservice and its dependencies (e.g. other services or external datastore) • Component testing of a microservice either with or without its dependencies • Contract testing by consumers of a microservice • End-to-end testing of a system of microservices • Use the Cloud Foundry Java client library from unit tests to communicate with the environment • Microservices are typically very amenable to testing with ‘shadow traffic’ where requests are sent to both new and old versions of the service 17
  19. 19. Twelve Factor Apps and Cloud Foundry 1. One codebase tracked in revision control, many deploys • Cloud Foundry application is unit of deployment 2. Explicitly declare and isolate dependencies • Cloud Foundry buildpack brings runtime dependencies 3. Store config in the environment • Facilitated by binding to services 4. Treat backing services as attached resources • Create and bind to service 5. Strictly separate build and run stages • Staging to immutable container 6. Execute the app as one or more stateless processes • Stateless containers 18
  20. 20. Twelve Factor Apps and Cloud Foundry 7. Export services via port binding • HTTP port exposed by container 8. Scale out via the process model • cf scale 9. Maximize robustness with fast startup and graceful shutdown • Cloud Foundry can deploy/scale quickly but can your app? 10. Keep development, staging, and production as similar as possible • Cloud Foundry everywhere 11. Treat logs as event streams • Loggregator 12. Run admin/management tasks as one-off processes • Push single-shot application 19
  21. 21. UI (PHP) Catalog Service Ordering (Java) Catalog Service Catalog (node.js) Micro Services Example AndroidiOS x3 SendGrid SQLDB Address Validation Cloudant Analytics Auto Scaling Single Sign-on MySQL 20
  22. 22. Migrating to a Microservices Architecture 21
  23. 23. Decomposing to Services • Decomposition isn’t about services reaching a certain size or a certain number – aim for each service to have a single responsibility • Services should be independently replaceable and upgradeable • Differences in speed of change may be another reason to separate services • Separate databases before separating services • Dependency analysis tools such as JDepend may assist in finding natural boundaries • Ensure existing transactions continue to reside within a single service or redesign to use compensation and/or eventual consistency • Decide what you want the teams to look like first!
  24. 24. Extend the Monolith • Build new features as microservices around an existing monolith • Use existing APIs or glue code for integration • Cloud Integration service in IBM Bluemix provides a mechanism to access existing enterprise data and systems 23
  25. 25. Summary • What are microservices? • Developing and deploying microservices • Migrating to a microservices architecture 24
  26. 26. Questions? 25
  27. 27. Thank You Your Feedback is Important! Access the InterConnect 2015 Conference CONNECT Attendee Portal to complete your session surveys from your smartphone, laptop or conference kiosk.
  28. 28. Notices and Disclaimers Copyright © 2015 by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without written permission from IBM. U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights - Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM. Information in these presentations (including information relating to products that have not yet been announced by IBM) has been reviewed for accuracy as of the date of initial publication and could include unintentional technical or typographical errors. IBM shall have no responsibility to update this information. THIS DOCUMENT IS DISTRIBUTED "AS IS" WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. IN NO EVENT SHALL IBM BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGE ARISING FROM THE USE OF THIS INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF DATA, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF PROFIT OR LOSS OF OPPORTUNITY. IBM products and services are warranted according to the terms and conditions of the agreements under which they are provided. Any statements regarding IBM's future direction, intent or product plans are subject to change or withdrawal without notice. Performance data contained herein was generally obtained in a controlled, isolated environments. Customer examples are presented as illustrations of how those customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual performance, cost, savings or other results in other operating environments may vary. References in this document to IBM products, programs, or services does not imply that IBM intends to make such products, programs or services available in all countries in which IBM operates or does business. Workshops, sessions and associated materials may have been prepared by independent session speakers, and do not necessarily reflect the views of IBM. All materials and discussions are provided for informational purposes only, and are neither intended to, nor shall constitute legal or other guidance or advice to any individual participant or their specific situation. It is the customer’s responsibility to insure its own compliance with legal requirements and to obtain advice of competent legal counsel as to the identification and interpretation of any relevant laws and regulatory requirements that may affect the customer’s business and any actions the customer may need to take to comply with such laws. IBM does not provide legal advice or represent or warrant that its services or products will ensure that the customer is in compliance with any law.
  29. 29. Notices and Disclaimers (con’t) Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products in connection with this publication and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. IBM does not warrant the quality of any third-party products, or the ability of any such third-party products to interoperate with IBM’s products. IBM EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. The provision of the information contained herein is not intended to, and does not, grant any right or license under any IBM patents, copyrights, trademarks or other intellectual property right. • IBM, the IBM logo,, Bluemix, Blueworks Live, CICS, Clearcase, DOORS®, Enterprise Document Management System™, Global Business Services ®, Global Technology Services ®, Information on Demand, ILOG, Maximo®, MQIntegrator®, MQSeries®, Netcool®, OMEGAMON, OpenPower, PureAnalytics™, PureApplication®, pureCluster™, PureCoverage®, PureData®, PureExperience®, PureFlex®, pureQuery®, pureScale®, PureSystems®, QRadar®, Rational®, Rhapsody®, SoDA, SPSS, StoredIQ, Tivoli®, Trusteer®, urban{code}®, Watson, WebSphere®, Worklight®, X-Force® and System z® Z/OS, are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation, registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be trademarks of IBM or other companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at "Copyright and trademark information" at: