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Introduction to Microservices and Cloud Native Application Architecture

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Presentation from IBM InterConnect 2015 covering the concepts of 12 Factor Apps and Microservices with reference to IBM Bluemix/Cloud Foundry.

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Introduction to Microservices and Cloud Native Application Architecture

  1. 1. © 2015 IBM Corporation Introduction to Microservices and Cloud Native Application Architecture David Currie, Senior Software Engineer @dcurrie | david_currie@uk.ibm.com
  2. 2. Agenda • What does it mean to be Cloud Native? • Twelve Factor Apps • What are Microservices? • Developing and Deploying Microservices 1
  3. 3. What does it mean to be Cloud Native? • Clean contract with underlying OS to ensure maximum portability • Scale elastically without significant changes to tooling, architecture or development practices • Resilient to inevitable failures in the infrastructure and application • Instrumented to provide both technical and business insight • Utilize cloud services e.g. storage, queuing, caching, … • Rapid and repeatable deployments to maximise agility • Automated setup to minimize time and cost for new developers 2
  4. 4. Twelve Factor Apps 12factor.net 3
  5. 5. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • One codebase tracked in revision control, many deploys • Bluemix: utilize IBM Bluemix DevOps Services or Cloud Foundry deployment tools (Urban Code Deploy, Gradle, Jenkins, …)
  6. 6. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Explicitly declare and isolate dependencies • Typically platform dependent e.g. npm, bundler or Liberty feature manager • Never rely on system-wide dependencies • Bluemix: buildpack adds external dependencies
  7. 7. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Store config in the environment • Separate config from source • Avoid ‘config groups’ • Bluemix: applications parameterized via system provided and custom environment variables
  8. 8. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Treat backing services as attached resources • Local and remote resources should be treated identically • Bluemix: same mechanism for creating and binding to all services (including custom user provided)
  9. 9. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Strictly separate build and run stages • Bluemix: output of build and staging is immutable container
  10. 10. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Execute the app as one or more stateless processes • Never rely on sticky sessions • Bluemix: application instances are stateless (state held by services)
  11. 11. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Export services via port binding • Bluemix: containers expose HTTP port externalised via route
  12. 12. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Scale out via the process model • Individual VMs can only scale vertically so far • Stateless nature makes scaling simple • Bluemix: cf scale and auto- scaling service
  13. 13. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Maximize robustness with fast startup and graceful shutdown • Application instances are disposable • Crash-only design is logical conclusion • Bluemix: architecture can rapidly start and stop instances but need to ensure the application can respond
  14. 14. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Keep development, staging, and production as similar as possible • Use the same backing services in each environment • Bluemix: use for every environment
  15. 15. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Treat logs as event streams • Don’t write to log files • Bluemix: loggregator provides event streams for applications; can be drained to third-party log management system
  16. 16. Twelve Factors I. Codebase II. Dependencies III. Config IV. Backing Services V. Build, release, run VI. Processes VII.Port binding VIII.Concurrency IX. Disposability X. Dev/prod parity XI. Logs XII.Admin processes • Run admin/management tasks as one-off processes • E.g. database migrations or for debugging • Bluemix: push single-shot applications bound to same services
  17. 17. What are Microservices? 16
  18. 18. Monolithic Application
  19. 19. Monolithic Application Modularity
  20. 20. Monolithic Application Scaling
  21. 21. Monolithic Application Failing 
  22. 22. Monolithic Application Failing 
  23. 23. Monolithic Application Failed  
  24. 24. Monolithic Application Update
  25. 25. Monolithic Application Revolution
  26. 26. Monolithic Application Develop
  27. 27. Microservices Application
  28. 28. Microservices Application Interactions
  29. 29. Microservices Application Scaled
  30. 30. Microservices Application Evolution
  31. 31. Monolithic versus Microservices Monolithic Microservice Architecture Built as a single logical executable (typically the server-side part of a three tier client- server-database architecture) Built as a suite of small services, each running separately and communicating with lightweight mechanisms Modularity Based on language features Based on business capabilities Agility Changes to the system involve building and deploying a new version of the entire application Changes can be applied to each service independently Scaling Entire application scaled horizontally behind a load-balancer Each service scaled independently when needed Implementation Typically written in one language Each service implemented in the language that best fits the need Maintainability Large code base intimidating to new developers Smaller code base easier to manage Transaction ACID BASE 30
  32. 32. Microservice Challenges • Greater operational complexity – more moving parts • Devs need significant ops skills • Service interfaces and versioning • Duplication of effort across service implementations • Additional complexity of creating a distributed system – network latency, fault tolerance, serialization, … • Designing decoupled non-transactional systems is hard • Avoiding latency overhead of large numbers of small service invocations • Locating service instances • Maintaining availability and consistency with partitioned data • End-to-end testing 31
  33. 33. Developing and Deploying Microservices 32
  34. 34. Reducing Operational Complexity • Platform-as-a-Service exists to remove the complexity of deploying applications – the PaaS provider also handles the complexity of managing and monitoring the infrastructure • Cloud Foundry provides a consistent deployment mechanism regardless of programming language • Buildpacks ensure that applications are kept up-to-date with new versions of the runtime and libraries • Routing and load balancing handled by Cloud Foundry router • Service dependencies are resolved at deployment time • Repeatable deployment through IBM DevOps Services or CLI, Maven/Gradle/Travis/Jenkins plugins (you can even run Jenkins on Cloud Foundry!) • Cloud Foundry V3 API to allow multiple processes per app 33
  35. 35. Service Discovery • Within a Cloud Foundry environment, routes and the CF router provide all that is needed to locate a service instance • Cloud Controller manages distribution and availability of application instances • Blue-green deployments supported by binding multiple application versions to the same route • cf cups (create user provided service) provides a convenient mechanism to inform one microservice of the route for a microservice on which it is dependent • Where instances of a microservice are deployed to multiple Cloud Foundry environments, consider using a runtime registry e.g. Eureka or highly-available data store e.g. etcd, consul or Zookeeper 34
  36. 36. Communication Protocols • Cloud Foundry currently only supports inbound HTTP • Web sockets is an option in preference to long polling • JSON may be the best fit for client facing services but consider other options such as Apache Thrift or Google Protocol Buffers where serialization efficiency is important • Typically start with synchronous protocols and add asynchronous (e.g. via MQ Light) where needed to support the interaction style or performance goals • Parallel invocation of downstream services may be required to ensure responsiveness is maintained • Consider using a reactive programming model (e.g. RxJava) or Java 8’s CompletableFuture 35
  37. 37. Design for Failure • Any service call could fail where failure could be anything from an immediate error code to never returning – need to handle that gracefully • Emphasis on real-time monitoring of technical and business metrics • Application monitoring through Monitoring and Analytics service or third-party service e.g. New Relic • Gives insights which might not be uncovered in a monolithic application • Implement patterns from ‘Release It!’ e.g. via Netflix Hystrix • Circuit Breaker – protect from downstream failures • Bulkhead – limit resources that can be consumed • Timeout • Testing for failures: Simian Army 36
  38. 38. Questions? 37
  39. 39. Summary • What does it mean to be Cloud Native? • Twelve Factor Apps • What are Microservices? • Developing and Deploying Microservices 38
  40. 40. Thank You Your Feedback is Important! Access the InterConnect 2015 Conference CONNECT Attendee Portal to complete your session surveys from your smartphone, laptop or conference kiosk.
  41. 41. Notices and Disclaimers Copyright © 2015 by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without written permission from IBM. U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights - Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM. Information in these presentations (including information relating to products that have not yet been announced by IBM) has been reviewed for accuracy as of the date of initial publication and could include unintentional technical or typographical errors. IBM shall have no responsibility to update this information. THIS DOCUMENT IS DISTRIBUTED "AS IS" WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. IN NO EVENT SHALL IBM BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGE ARISING FROM THE USE OF THIS INFORMATION, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, LOSS OF DATA, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF PROFIT OR LOSS OF OPPORTUNITY. IBM products and services are warranted according to the terms and conditions of the agreements under which they are provided. Any statements regarding IBM's future direction, intent or product plans are subject to change or withdrawal without notice. Performance data contained herein was generally obtained in a controlled, isolated environments. Customer examples are presented as illustrations of how those customers have used IBM products and the results they may have achieved. Actual performance, cost, savings or other results in other operating environments may vary. References in this document to IBM products, programs, or services does not imply that IBM intends to make such products, programs or services available in all countries in which IBM operates or does business. Workshops, sessions and associated materials may have been prepared by independent session speakers, and do not necessarily reflect the views of IBM. All materials and discussions are provided for informational purposes only, and are neither intended to, nor shall constitute legal or other guidance or advice to any individual participant or their specific situation. It is the customer’s responsibility to insure its own compliance with legal requirements and to obtain advice of competent legal counsel as to the identification and interpretation of any relevant laws and regulatory requirements that may affect the customer’s business and any actions the customer may need to take to comply with such laws. IBM does not provide legal advice or represent or warrant that its services or products will ensure that the customer is in compliance with any law.
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