Lesson 04 French Absolutism

1,632 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,632
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
16
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
26
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Lesson 04 French Absolutism

  1. 1. <ul><li>Following the disasters of the Thirty Years’ War, the monarchies of Europe experienced a crisis of authority . </li></ul>Henry IV of France Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson: French Absolutism
  2. 2. <ul><li>French response- French absolutism. </li></ul>Henry IV of France Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  3. 3. <ul><li>The expense of the 30 Years’ War had exhausted the treasuries of the larger European monarchies. This caused deep resentment among the masses. </li></ul>Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  4. 4. <ul><li>The nobility saw it as an opportunity to use the king’s need for more money and masses resentment to get some of their power back . </li></ul>Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  5. 5. <ul><li>They did so through government office and through rebellion. </li></ul><ul><li>They used the merchants who resented the higher taxes and disruption of trade. </li></ul>Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  6. 6. <ul><li>2. They used the peasants who were primarily victims of war because of the destruction of farmland and heavily taxed . </li></ul>Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  7. 7. <ul><li>France responded all of this with conservative attempt of royal absolutism (Hobbes’ solution). </li></ul>Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  8. 8. <ul><li>It emerged under the leadership of the first Bourbon king – Henry IV (r. 1589-1610). </li></ul>Henry IV of France Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  9. 9. <ul><li>Henry IV passed the Edict of Nantes which gave religious freedom to the French Protestants (Huguenots) in 1598. </li></ul><ul><li>He passed laws that brought stability to France. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of his laws upset the nobility and Catholics. </li></ul>Henry IV of France Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  10. 10. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism Killed by a Catholic sympathizer
  11. 11. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism His son, Louis XIII became the next king. However, he was just a boy so he needed a regent plus an advisor.
  12. 12. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism Regent: Queen mother Marie de Medici
  13. 13. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson: French Absolutism Advisor: Cardinal Richelieu 1585 -1642
  14. 14. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson: French Absolutism XIII Continued many of his dad’s policies plus Cardinal Richelieu Three Musketeers
  15. 15. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism <ul><li>XIII </li></ul><ul><li>Continued many of his dad’s policies plus Cardinal Richelieu </li></ul><ul><li>Limited powers of the nobility and local parlements . </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisoned political opponents </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized the economy </li></ul>
  16. 16. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism <ul><li>XIII </li></ul><ul><li>He encouraged exploration and colonization of the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic, he entered the 30 Years’ War on the side of the Protestants. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism XIII By the time of his death (1643), France was the most powerful nation in Europe. Noble power seemed broken. But the royal treasury was also broke which meant- higher taxes were on the way.
  18. 18. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism The FRONDE (1643-1651) came next.
  19. 19. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson: French Absolutism Louis XIV (1643-1715) ascended to the French throne at the age of 4 (The second king in a row that became king as a boy).
  20. 20. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism Louis XIV (1643-1715) His mother, Anne of Austria and her advisor Cardinal Mazarin were the real power early on.
  21. 21. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism Louis XIV (1643-1715) With a boy king on the throne, the nobility saw their chance to regain powers lost under Henry and XIII. This was called The Fronde , which means “slingshot.” .
  22. 22. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. The Fronde 1649 began at court in 1649 with the wives of imprisoned nobles demanding the release of their husbands. . Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  23. 23. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. The Parlement of Paris took up their cause, stirring up the masses in Paris. The nobility and some town surrounding towns joined in. In 1651, Paris fell to rebels, forcing XIV to abandon his palace in Louvre. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  24. 24. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. The Frondeur state rule France in XIV’s name in 1651-1652. It was inefficient and corrupt. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  25. 25. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. In 1652, the people demanded that XIV and Cardinal Mazarin be returned to power. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  26. 26. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. XIV determined he would be embarrassed like this again by anyone French or any other nationality. He began steps towards building an absolute rulership. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  27. 27. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  28. 28. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. The king must be godlike: Sun Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  29. 29. The king must be godlike: Sun Supported: Apollo sun god image (Divine right) Established the royal academy of art, music, science. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  30. 30. The king must be godlike: Sun Supported: Apollo sun god image (Divine right) Established the royal academy of art, music, science. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson 2: French Absolutism Versailles
  31. 31. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. The king must be in control <ul><li>Supported: </li></ul><ul><li>Personally directed the affairs of state in great detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Hired professional secretaries and administrators not from the nobility but from the ranks of professional men. </li></ul><ul><li>Never call the Estates General (like our Congress) into session. </li></ul><ul><li>Established trained bureaucrats (intendants) in local regions loyal to him. </li></ul>Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  32. 32. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. The king must be wealthy <ul><li>Supported: </li></ul><ul><li>When XIV became king, the nation was bankrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>He hired a financial genius (Colbert) who continued the Bourbon policy of centralized economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Colbert perfected the policy of mercantilism </li></ul><ul><li>Tax at will without legislature interference to pay for Versailles and the military. </li></ul>Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  33. 33. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. The king must impose religious conformity <ul><li>Supported: </li></ul><ul><li>Revoked the Edict of Nantes (Granted religious toleration to the Huguenots in 1598 by Henry IV). </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands fled, harming the French economy. </li></ul>Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  34. 34. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. The king must have a strong military <ul><li>Supported: </li></ul><ul><li>Military reforms to create professional army. </li></ul><ul><li>Used it against Spain to try to become King of Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>Used it against the Dutch Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of his life, he regretted spending so much time in war. </li></ul>Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism
  35. 35. Château de Versailles/LauriePlatt Winfrey, Inc. By 1688, XIV was on the verge of becoming the virtual emperor of the Western world. But the Dutch were about to get a great ally, one that would bring the Sun King to the bargaining table and eventually bring him down- that ally would be England. Western Civilization 102 David Clayton Lesson : French Absolutism

×