Succeeding in Higher Education: A Critical Review of Taiwanese Aborigines

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Presenter: Che-Wei Lee
Academic Conference Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
Location: Fairmont, The Queen Elizabeth Hotel (Floor C-Richelieu), Montréal, Québec, Canada
Event Date: May 5, 2011
Organization: Comparative and International Education Society (CIES)
Publication Date: May 5, 2011
Conference End Date: May 5, 2011
Conference Start Date: May 1, 2011

Published in: Education
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Succeeding in Higher Education: A Critical Review of Taiwanese Aborigines

  1. 1. Succeeding in Higher Education: A Critical Review of Taiwanese Aborigines Succeeding in Higher Education: A Critical Review of Taiwanese Aborigines David Che-Wei Lee (Paljaljim Rusagasag), W. James Jacob, and Sheng Yao Cheng University of Pittsburgh CIES Annual Conference, Montreal, Canada 5 May 2011 © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 1
  2. 2. Where are Taiwan Aborigines? Geographical Location and Distribution of Taiwanese Aborigines © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 2 Source: Council of Indigenous Peoples, Executive Yuan (2011). Source: http://www.nativevillage.org/Archives/2009%20Archives/Jan %201%202009%20News/1-1- 2009%20V4/Taiwan's%20aborigines%20Find%20New%20Vo ice.htm (2011)
  3. 3. Images of Taiwan Aborigines 3 © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved Tsou Paiwan Amis Taruku Sadiq Kavalan Saisiyat Thao Yami Puyuma Rukai Atayal BununSakizaya
  4. 4. Outline • Questionable Context and Consciousness • Theoretical Framework and Methods • Conditions and Themes on Taiwanese Aboriginal Higher Education • Critical Analysis of Talented Aboriginal Cultivation and Employment • Examination of Education Policy and Planning • Decolonized Reform and Praxis • Conclusions and Recommendations © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 4
  5. 5. Context and Purpose • Assimilation in the Retrocession Era: 1945-1962 • Integration and Unification Stage: 1963-1987 • Open Development Stage: 1988-2005 • Self-determination Stage: 2005-2011 • Key Issue: The Loss of Subject in Mainstream Education System • Purpose: Researchers explore potential liberating pathways by examining whether Taiwanese Aboriginal students achieve their self-emancipation through succeeding in higher education from gaining access, completing their degrees, and obtaining jobs following their graduation. © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 5
  6. 6. Research Questions • Gaining Access to Higher Education • Degree Completion • Job Placement After Receiving Degree • Policy Environment • Success or Failure? 6© 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved
  7. 7. Theoretical Framework and Methods • Methods: This study is primarily based on archival analysis of the existing literature and discourse analysis regarding government requirements and policies. © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 7 Theoretical Perspective Level of Analysis Primary Focus Theoretical Theme Cultural Discontinuity Theory Microlevel Precollege students Cultural incongruence Structural Inequality Theory Macrolevel Both precollege and college students Social inequality Internationalist Theory Microlevel College students Community transition/college integration Transculturation Theory Microlevel College students Cultural identity Table 1. Theoretical Perspective on American Indian Education Source: Huffman, Terry. (2010). Theoretical perspectives on American Indian education: Taking a new look at academic success and the achievement gap. Maryland: AltaMira Press.
  8. 8. Conditions on Taiwanese Aboriginal Higher Education • 1999 and 2000 Statistics • 2009 Statistics • 2010 Statistics • 2011 Statistics – The Rate of Registration and Enrolment for College Entrance Exam – The Rate of Various Departments – Dropout Rate © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 8
  9. 9. © 2011 David Che-Wei Lee All rights reserved 9 Level 2000 2001 All Students (A) Aborigines (B) % (B/A) All Students (A) Aborigines (B) % (B/A) Doctoral Degree 12,253 4 0.033 13,822 3 0.02 Master’s Degree 54,980 32 0.058 70,039 64 0.09 Undergraduate 470,030 1,939 0.413 564,059 2,667 0.47 Vocational/Juni or College 457,020 4,805 1.051 444,182 5,453 1.23 Table 2. Population and Rate of Enrolment in Higher Education Level in 2000 and 2001 Sources: Kao (2000, p. 6; 2001, p. 6). Level Enrolment in 2000 (A) Graduation in 1999 (B) Enrolment in 2001 (C) Graduation in 2000 (D) % (Aborigines/All Students) % (Aborigines/All Students) (B-A) % (Aborigines/All Students) % (Aborigines/All Students) (C-D) Doctoral Degree 0.033 0.000 (-0.033) 0.02 0.07(+0.05) Master’s Degree 0.058 0.020 (-0.038) 0.09 0.03(-0.06) Undergraduate 0.413 0.225(-0.188) 0.47 0.27(-0.20) Vocational/Juni or College 1.051 0.366(-0.685) 1.23 0.47(-0.76) Table 3. Population and Rate of Enrolment and Graduation in Higher Education Level in 2000 and 2001 Sources: Kao (2000, p. 6, 8; 2001, p. 6, 15).
  10. 10. 10 All examinee Non-Aborigines Aborigines Registration (A) Enrollment % Registration Enrollment Registration (B) Enrollment n Percentage n Percentage n (%=B/A) Percentage 1999 Total 121,222 59.83 120,427 59.94 695 (0.57) 41.44 Male 63,891 61.69 63,506 61.82 385 (0.60) 38.96 Female 57,231 57.76 56,921 57.84 310 (0.54) 44.52 2000 Total 130,468 57.70 129,617 57.84 851 (0.65) 37.13 Male 68,297 58.28 67,823 58.45 474 (0.69) 34.39 Female 62,171 57.06 61,794 57.16 377 (0.61) 40.58 Table 4. Comparison of Population and Rate of Registration and Enrolment on the College Entrance Exam in 2000 and 2001 Sources: Kao (2000, p. 47; 2001, p. 69).
  11. 11. 11 Natural Science Mathemat ics and Computer Science Engineering Commerce and Management Education Law Medicine and Hygiene Others Total 2000 Aborigines (%) 1.4 2.4 7.9 10.2 14.7 3.6 17.0 42.8 100.0 All Students (%) 3.7 8.3 18.5 21.5 6.8 1.9 8.1 33.1 100.0 2001 Aborigines (%) 1.2 3.6 10.9 11.4 11.7 2.4 17.5 41.0 100.0 All Students (%) 3.3 8.4 20.2 22.4 5.5 1.7 8.5 30.0 100.0 Table 5. Comparison of Rate of Various Departments between Aboriginal Students and All Students in 2000 and 2001 Sources: Kao (2000, p. 13; 2001, p. 13).
  12. 12. 12 University Junior College Senior High School Vocational School Junior Higher School Elementary School Aborigines (%) 3.07 1.19 0.58 4.63 2.67 0.22 All Students (%) 1.75 0.32 0.24 1.54 0.62 0.06 Table 6. Comparison of Dropout Rate of Various Education Levels in 2001 Sources: Kao (2001, p. 25)
  13. 13. Themes on Taiwanese Aboriginal Higher Education • Assimilation policies influence education • Multicultural conceptions are hard to fulfill • Inequality and limited access of higher education • Conflicted relation among persistence, retention, and ethnic/cultural identity (family support, economic difficulty ) • Disconnection between employment opportunities and professional skills, techniques, and knowledge • General dysfunction of family structure • Lack of lifelong learning perception • Low academic achievement • Schooling discrimination • Lack of protection through an individualized law system • Lack of long-term systematic planning and programs © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 13
  14. 14. Critical Analysis of Talented Aboriginal Cultivation and Employment • Connection between occupational choices and employment: social status and education achievement • What kinds of talented aborigines will be needed? Tradition and Modern • Imbalance of quantitative and qualitative nature of talented and specialized aborigines • The success/failure of employment: self- willingness, self-motivation or structural requirement and qualification? © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 14
  15. 15. Examination of Education Policy and Planning • Analysis of Indigenous Policy Guidelines: – Five-Year Plan of Development and Improvement of Aboriginal Education (Phases 1 and 2) (1990 & 1998) – Report of Aboriginal Education Reform (1990s) – White Book of Aboriginal Policy for the New Century (1995) – Act of Aboriginal Education (1995) • Lack of Aboriginal research members and assistants (subjective loss) • Lack of indigenous voices and perspectives • Unitary and rough research methods • Lack of other urban aboriginal samples • Lack of diverse and rich references • Lack of strong evidences and warrants • Overlapping the local government’s assignments • Misplacing the long-term plan into the short-term plan (ex. establishing Ethnic Universities) • Lack of general evaluation so that is lack of reliability and validity • Lack of the public, local/central government’s recognition © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 15
  16. 16. • Reflections on Indigenous Policies: – Overview of Taiwanese Aboriginal Education History (Eliminate Biases, Prejudice, and Negative Discrimination Historically, Socially, and Biologically) – Following International Indigenous Education Policies and issues around the world – Education Administrative Perspectives: Equity, Efficiency, Choice, and Excellence – Persistent Education Survey © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 16
  17. 17. Colonization, Colonialism, and Internal Colonization • Reconceptualization of Colonization, Colonialism, and Internal Colonization • Nature of Colonial Education • Problems of Colonial Education: – Loss of Ethnic Languages, Culture, and Identity – Low Education Achievement © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 17
  18. 18. Taiwanese Aboriginal Colonial Education • Assimilation as a Fundamental Basis • Enlightenment as a Motivation • De-politicize as an Approach • Deprivation of Ethnic Subject • Lack of Cultural Compatibility 18© 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved
  19. 19. Decolonized Reforms and Praxis • Aboriginal Education Reforms – Lack of inner-system agency – Lack of Aborigine-based leadership – Lack of critical self-consciousness – Lack of autonomy and self-determination • Decolonized Praxis is needed to counter these reforms © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 19
  20. 20. Conclusions and Recommendations • Open Access to Higher Education (Notice the drawbacks of preferential treatment) • Degree Completion with a Support System • Job Placement After Receiving Degree with Diverse Mechanisms (Tradition and Modern) • Policy Environment with Self-Determination Ingredients and more autonomy (indigenous law) • Success or Failure? Internal cultural identity, transculturation, and external critical praxis are the final determinant! © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 20
  21. 21. The End Masalu (Thank you)! I look forward to your feedback. 9/4/2013 © 2011 Lee, Jacob, and Cheng All rights reserved 21

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