The Challenges of Universal Primary Education Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa

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The Challenges of Universal Primary Education Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa

  1. 1. The Challenges of Universal Primary Education Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa by Mikiko Nishimura and Albert Byamugisha (2011) Instructor: Che-Wei Lee ADMPS 3347 Comparative Education, Spring 2012 Thursdays, 12 January 2012, 7:15-9:55 pm 4301 Wesley W. Posvar Hall University of Pittsburgh All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 1
  2. 2. Learning Objects O To understand Universal Primary Education Policy O To identify the common and unique Themes from these case countries O To analyze the pro and con factors for the UPE policy O To create your own interpretation and further exploration for this topic All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 2
  3. 3. Key Words and Concepts O Universal Primary Education (UPE) O Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) O Education for All (EFA) O Fee Abolition O Capitation Grant O Free Primary Education (FPE) O Gross Enrollment Rate (GRE) O Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Uganda All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 3
  4. 4. UPE Policy in Ghana O Could you summarize the contents? All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 4
  5. 5. UPE Policy in Malawi O Could you summarize the contents? All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 5
  6. 6. UPE Policy in Kenya O Could you summarize the contents? All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 6
  7. 7. UPE Policy in Uganda O Could you summarize the contents? All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 7
  8. 8. General Impact of UPE Policy Common Themes O Increased enrollments in all the four countries O Overage/underage children flocked in to schools (overcrowded classroom) O Low teacher motivation O Lack of funds (unable to ask parents for fees) O Parental passive engagement in school activities and decision-making O High dropout rate All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 8
  9. 9. General Impact of UPE Policy Unique Themes O Examination results declined after the introduction of the UPE policy (Kenya) O Increased repetition vs. decreased dropouts (Kenya) O Declined quality indicators of schools (Malawi) O Parental cooperative attitude with schools (Malawi) O Quality of education depends on how parents’ support education (Malawi) All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 9
  10. 10. Administrative Challenges Common Themes (p. 234) O Top-down policy implementation O Unpreparedness of the system for changes envisaged O Contradictory scenarios between administration and implementation of the policy All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 10
  11. 11. Administrative Challenges Unique Themes (p. 234) O Local politicians’ interference (Uganda) O District officials’ stronger responsibilities than SMCs (Ghana) O Low engagement of parents and mutual mistrust with SMCs, teachers, & communities (Kenya) O Decentralization policies, power, district councils All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 11
  12. 12. Financial Challenges Common Themes (p. 235) O Capitation grant disbursement amounts hinge on the availability rather than the need O Insufficient amount of the capitation grants O Delay in fund disbursement O Late payments have negative effects on school planning, schedules, & other activities O Insufficient budget allocation negatively affect the monitoring of schools O Demands for regular monitoring of the quality of education & the quality assurance system All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 12
  13. 13. Financial Challenges Unique Themes (p. 235) O No capitation grant scheme in Malawi for more than 10 years (Malawi) O Education Budget goes toward teachers on leave, teacher deaths, & transfer of teachers (Malawi) O Varied financing at the household, school, and district levels (Uganda) O Minimal district resources O School finance relies on the capacity of the SMC and parents’ contribution to schools All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 13
  14. 14. Perceptive Issues Positive Attitudes (p. 236) O Four countries agreed upon the UPE policy through democratic elections and a domestic decision-making process. O The majority of the stakeholders took UPE policy seriously O The UPE policy is greatly appreciated by parents and community members for its equitable nature of benefit to the poor. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 14
  15. 15. Perceptive Issues Common Challenges (p. 236) O Automatic promotion policy is contested by all stakeholders at the district and school levels. O Uneven qualification of the students O How to improve internal efficiency of education in large classrooms without sacrificing students learning All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 15
  16. 16. Perceptive Issues Unique Themes (pp. 236-37) O A gap between what parents perceive and what they actually do (Kenya and Uganda, see table 12.2, p. 237) O Generally parental negative and passive attitudes in most schools based on the observations O The lack of financial and administrative preparedness can lead to noncompliance of the UPE policy All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 16
  17. 17. Linkages among Factors O Administrative and financial constraints have strong links and mutual effects at both the district and school levels. O Limited resources and lack of administrative capacity constrain the capacity of the schools to fully and adequately implement UPE and maintain a high level of school performance. O The overall perception of parents and SMC members of UPE was positive (Kenya, Uganda, and Ghana). O There are no capitation grants to replace school fees, stakeholder reactions varied indicating that they can create positive/negative changes to the way school perform (Malawi). O No clear regional difference within these four countries All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 17
  18. 18. Popular Policy, Responsibility Deficit? O The sustainable popularity of UPE depends on the support of strong commitment of stakeholders in the implementation of the policy. O From teachers and head teachers’ perception: O Increasing passive attitudes among parents toward participation in school activities and management. O Most teachers from four case countries showed that parents and community members interpret fee abolition as a message from the government that the government is in a position to take care of everything. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 18
  19. 19. Popular Policy, Responsibility Deficit? O From parents and SMC members’ viewpoints: O They value schooling for boys and girls as important. O The majority regard their contribution to schools as important. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 19
  20. 20. Why is there such an evident gap? O Key point: how parents perceive quality of education under the UPE/FPE policy O Most satisfaction on quality of education: Ghana, Kenya, & Uganda (Except in Malawi) O Malawi: Parental dissatisfaction and disappointment with a UPE policy implementation that was not accompanied by additional public expenses to replace withdrawn fees, which was the case for 13 years in Malawi. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 20
  21. 21. Why UPE/FPE policy fails? Perspectives from the majority of education administrators, teachers, and head teachers O “Fee abolition policy is good but not well implemented” (p. 239). O Reasons: top-down manner without prior consultation or preparation for administrative and financial mechanisms. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 21
  22. 22. Why UPE/FPE policy fails? A complex nature of parental reaction for the UPE/FPE policy O Some parents feared a decline in the quality of education after the implementation of the FPE policy in 2003 and transferred their children into private schools (Kenya). O Households at all asset levels followed the trend. O The poorest children who were to be among those who most benefited from the FPE policy chose to attend private schools by paying school fees. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 22
  23. 23. Two Critical Issues O First: Substantial parental participation is hard to obtain unless their perceptions are clearly noted (p. 240). O Second: Even if parents have some perceptions on the quality of education, their acts are not necessarily consistent with their perceptions (p. 240). All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 23
  24. 24. Findings O Positive or passive attitudes of parents and community members are rooted in a more complex phenomenon than a mere equation of “not paying school fees equals termination of their roles.” O Top–down implementation and divisions among stakeholders’ perceptions and their behaviors O Lack of proper and wise consultation with stakeholders O Lack of clear implementation process and accompanying monitoring and evaluation of the program’s overall impact O Parental passive perceptions led to a responsibility deficit of the local public O Neglect of downward accountability All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 24
  25. 25. Conclusion O Widespread consultations with all stakeholders as a key ingredient of effective education policy implementation. O How parents voice their opinions when fees are no longer required is a key question to be pursued in order to make UPE sustainable. O A need for an effective system of monitoring and tightening accountability of UPE policies and implementation effectiveness All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 25
  26. 26. Questions for Discussion O As one of the insiders, how will you solve the issues? Why or why not? O As one of the outsiders, how will you provide your effective assistance or suggestion? Why or why not? O Pick up some issues in which you are interested. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 26
  27. 27. Reference Nishimura, Mikiko, and Albert Byamugisha. 2011. “The Challenges of Universal Primary Education Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa.” In Policy Debates in Comparative, International, and Development Education, edited by John N. Hawkins and W. James Jacob, 225—45. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. All Rights Reserved © 2012 by Che-Wei Lee 27

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