Organisational Challenges of using                   Social Media Marketing:               The Case of two Network Carrier...
David Caliesch, Andreas Liebrich1.      IntroductionSince the beginning of the century, Internet usage has dramatically in...
Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carrierssini & Buhalis, 2009) while int...
David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichAccording to Buhalis and Law (2008, 609), electronic complaints are the biggestcurrent cha...
Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers    analysis of the posts and c...
David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichThe periods of analysis were equal in terms of length. However, the weather in thesecond p...
Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers                               ...
David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichIn terms of comments from the airlines, KLM interacts much more with the cus-tomers. Some ...
Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network CarriersKLM confirms that problems post...
David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichSWISS confirmed that it will not to leave its fan community on its own for such along time...
Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers    all, but this company runs ...
David Caliesch, Andreas Liebrich5.      Limitations and Further ResearchIn general, an explorative case study shows challe...
Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network CarriersBibliographyAcquisti, A., & Gro...
David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichMayring, P. (2008): Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. In Uwe Flick, Ernst von Kardorff & Ines St...
Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers                               ...
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Organisational challenges of using social media marketing caliesch liebrich_2011_vonline

  1. 1. Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichAbstractSocial media marketing on Facebook or Twitter is en vogue, but it implies a con-siderable degree of transparency, and requires a high responsiveness that traditionalhierarchical companies might not be used to. Using social media marketing toolstherefore causes new kinds of organisational challenges that need to be researched.After a literature review, an explorative case study approach was chosen in order toresearch two approaches of airlines to dealing with the challenges in an internation-al environment. Categories of challenges were built by collecting data from docu-ments, interviews and the Facebook pages of KLM and SWISS International Air-lines (SWISS).The paper identifies four areas of challenges. First, it is crucial to set up an internalnetwork of respondents in order to quickly answer public questions and complaintson social media channels. Second, the style of communicating with fans mirrors thecorporate culture and drives costs as well as benefits. Third: A Facebook Wall is amulti-purpose communication channel. Requests might be answered by variousdepartments. Fourth: The dynamic field of social media marketing requires perma-nent improvements in order to better serve the customer.Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Facebook, Airlines, Organisational Challeng-es 1
  2. 2. David Caliesch, Andreas Liebrich1. IntroductionSince the beginning of the century, Internet usage has dramatically increased (Si-mon & Bernhardt, 2008, 11). Within this timeframe, the users’ options to interactand communicate electronically have greatly increased. Some business models,applications and features on the Internet are entirely based on social interaction(Busemann & Gscheidle, 2009). The social media movement started with the plat-form called ‘open diary’ that brought online diary writers together in one communi-ty. The trend of getting engage in social media has evolved quickly since then. So-cial meda is defined as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on theideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and allow the creation andexchange of user generated content” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, 61).The phenomenon of using social media platforms has been researched from differ-ent angles. The point of view of the users dominates the research, as social media isprimarily designed for peer-to-peer communication. First, the motivation of con-sumers to generate user generated content was researched. The findings of Daugh-erty, Eastin & Bright (2008, 22) show that ego-defensive, social, and value-expressive functional sources of motivation, and their contributions to attitude for-mation with regard to creating user generated content, offer a positive theoreticalaffirmation. Moreover, strengthening personal identity, entertainment, or in certaincases remuneration, can be sources of the motivation for using social media(Muntinga, Moorman & Smit 2010). A second research stream examines legal is-sues (George & Scerri, 2007) and in particular privacy of users (Giardin, et al.,2007; Acquisti & Gross 2006). Particularly in the field of travel and tourism, a thirdresearch stream examines trust and the impact of travel reviews. While the level oftrust strongly depends on the perceived credibility of the type of website on whichthe content is published (Yoo et al. 2009), the impact of reviews is strongly influ-encing the decision which accommodation to chose in a particular town or city(Gretzel & Yoo 2008; Sidali, Schulze & Spiller 2009).When companies or institutions get involved in social media, it is mainly for mar-keting purposes using social media as a B-to-C interaction channel. Researchersstarted to measure the level of engagement of companies in social media marketing(SMM). In particular, micro businesses see social media as a great marketing toolthrough which they can compete on a marketing level with their larger counterparts(Ghaffar & Tariq, 2010). A major reason for this is that most activities in SMMrequire little cash-outflow and offer a high potential reach, as a substantial part ofthe search results for potential tourist in search engines stem from social mediaplatforms (Xiang & Gretzel, 2010). However, some micro businesses and SMEshave a low degree of activity compared to the large companies (Pesonen, 2011)and, there are still too few tourism service providers that make use of SMM (Inver-2
  3. 3. Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carrierssini & Buhalis, 2009) while internet users frequently visit social media platformsfor gathering travel information (Milano, Baggio & Piatelli, 2011).There is a myriad of options for interaction with customers using electronic chan-nels and in particular social media services (Benz, 2010, 2). In terms of reach, ac-cessibility and user-friendliness, social media can be used by the members of thesociety on their own (Dreher, 2010, 18).Scholars have also looked at the marketing side of SMM, as the social media offersvarious ways to attract the customer. (Weber, 2007; Ghaffar & Tariq, 2010; Peso-nen, 2011; Maurer & Wiegmann, 2011). SMM activities are supposed to be differ-ent from activities for conventional marketing in the following ways. First, con-sumers start to publicly interact to communicate about and judge a brand (Evans,2008) which leads to uncontrollable marketing factors (Constantinides & Fountain2008, 240). As soon as an organisation starts monitoring these factors and tries tofacilitate the interaction, the challenge of constantly and quickly interacting as wellas staying interesting to the target group emerges (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, 66).Second, good social media activities should be embedded in the organisation inorder to be authentic and competent. Evans & Mc Kee, (2010, 10) point out “…fear of the unknown, the unsaid, the unidentified and even the uninformed sayingbad things about your brand, product, or services that aren’t even correct? Fear not,or at least fear less.” Due to the dynamic environment of social media, there is toolittle time to write and react perfectly. Imperfectionism is not well aligned with theessentials of corporate communications (Riel & Fombrun, 2007).Besides the difficulties of analysing the existing media, selecting the most suitablesocial media platforms to engage with, integrating the social media strategy in theexisting strategy allocating resources and monitoring the activities (Safko 2010)companies have to answer the question of how they cope with this highly dynamicand interactive environment. This question has not yet been researched.Based on this, the following research question arises: How can hierarchically or-ganised companies cope with a public, open and dynamic way of communication?2. MethodologyAs there is no research of how organisational challenges caused by SMM can bedealt with, this explorative case study approach (Yin, 1994) sheds light onto thisnew field. An explorative case study approach investigates a contemporary phe-nomenon for which the boundaries are not clear (Yin, 1994, 13). Both prerequisitesare fulfilled in the social media context. 3
  4. 4. David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichAccording to Buhalis and Law (2008, 609), electronic complaints are the biggestcurrent challenges for tourism organisations. Other companies in the tourism sectorface similar challenges as there are various channels of sending feedback. ManyWalls on Facebook (FB) pages of tourism organisations and companies are full ofpositive, but also negative feedback from anyone who can access the Internet. Theuse of FB is very popular. It is by far the most popular social network in the world( Therefore, this research focuses on FB.Airlines are multinational companies with various offices around the world. As theadoption of Web 2.0 has a positive link with the level of internationalisation(Scaglione, Johnson & Trabichet, 2009), their FB page and the challenges connect-ed to it are adequate research objects. Moreover, critical incidents often happen inthe airline business (Edvardsson, 1992). Critical incidents trigger a greater need forfast information updates. Critical incidents may occur at times when environmentalconditions prevent aircraft from operating on time. After the ash cloud crisis, theEuropean airline industry went through a second crisis in December 2010 as snowyand windy weather conditions severely impacted upon airline operation in Europe.Two airlines with different approaches towards the usage of the FB page were se-lected to conduct two explorative case studies in order to compare their approachesand find patterns. First: KLM operates an FB page with comparatively many fans(fans are people that klicked once on a companies’ ‘I lik button’) and a high levelof traffic on their Wall. Second, SWISS runs an FB page with a lower degree ofinteraction than KLM. The case study approach allows data collection from multi-ple sources:- The most important data source was the Wall of the two airlines on FB. All posts and comments on the Walls of the two airlines that were posted between December 1st and 9th as well as between December 18th and 27th were subject to analysis. A stepwise inductive process was used to categorise the content of these posts and comments (Mayring, 2008). The aim of this first step was to find the patterns of action and reaction between the customers and the airlines that might cause challenges for a hierarchical organisation. Based on the results of this inductive process and from the literature, a semi-structured interview was prepared as suggested by (Flick 2002, 128).- In a semi-structured interview (Hopf, 2008), social media managers of the companies answered questions relating to the analysed content and about how they deal with the identified challenges in a telephone interview. As SWISS had only one social media manager during the periods analysed, he was the on- ly interviewee. The interview with KLM was conducted with the person re- sponsible for the Wall on FB (social media manager) and the head of the social media hub. The answers were transcribed and analysed by using the inductive process of Mayring (2008) in order to verify the categories found during the4
  5. 5. Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers analysis of the posts and comments. During the same interview, interviewees also answered questions about the company in order to better understand the development of social media activities, the strategic intentions of social media use and the social-media management processes in these organisations.- Documents and policies concerning social media published by the airlines about how comments are treated were analysed.The explorative approach is appropriate for this research as it is a little researchedcontemporary phenomenon that implies challenges for the management of multina-tional companies particularly in the travel and tourism business.3. Two Airlines with two different Approaches to SMMThere are differences and similarities in the approaches of KLM and SWISS toSMM In order to better understand the results, the following table outlines the rele-vant cornerstones.Criteria SWISS KLMTransported passengers in 2010 14.2 million 20.7 millionFB Fans in Dec. 2010 Around 50,000 85,000# of fans: 7. Feb. 2011, 18:00 56,972 101,460# of fans: 8. May 2011, 18:00 63,057 192,239Decision to start with a FB page Marketing department Strategic decision at toptaken by management levelReason for page on FB Intention to increase SMM, Additional e-Acquisition and many users on FB and an information channel existing SWISS-FB page operated by a fanStart on FB In 2009 SWISS got the March 2010 admin-rights of the unofficial SWISS-FB page from a userDevelopment of number (#) of Large increase during ash Very strong increase duringfans cloud crisis and thanks to a ash cloud crisis and thanks creative competition to the marketing of the FB page.FB page is managed by One social media Manager Social media hub with seven(Feb. 2011) (and one deputy if he is employees absent)Operating hours (Feb. 2011) 08.00 – 17.00 (CET) 08.00 – 23.00 (CET)Figure 1: Corner stones of KLM and SWISS relevant for a comparison of the SWISS fanpageBoth airlines use FB for cross-media marketing, branding purposes, corporatecommunication and customer service. Due to the fans’ way of using this interac-tion-channel, at the moment the focus is on customer service for both KLM andSWISS. 5
  6. 6. David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichThe periods of analysis were equal in terms of length. However, the weather in thesecond period of analysis was worse. Both airlines had to cancel flights in both pe-riods but their hub-airports were never closed for a whole day or more. In the se-cond period, many ex-pats wanted to travel home for Christmas. The followingtable shows the number of posts and categorised details as well as details of allcomments.The major differences between the two airlines are that KLM strategically decidedto operate an FB page, puts more workforce effort into it and has almost twice asmany fans as SWISS. KLM acquired its fans in a shorter timeframe. SWISS carriedabout two thirds of the number of passengers that KLM carried. The size of theairlines is not correlated with the engagement of the fans as the following tablewith the number of the fan-posts of the two selected periods clearly shows.Day period 1 Number of fan-posts Day period 2 Number of fan-posts SWISS KLM SWISS KLM01.12.10 5 14 18.12.10 1 36502.12.10 1 34 19.12.10 3 16303.12.10 5 30 20.12.10 2 8704.12.10 3 36 21.12.10 9 6305.12.10 3 21 22.12.10 7 7806.12.10 1 24 23.12.10 0 6107.12.10 2 26 24.12.10 2 3608.12.10 2 23 25.12.10 5 33 26.12.10 5 33Figure 2: Number of fan-posts during the two periods of analysisOn the FB Wall, the owner of the Walls (here the airlines) and fans can post shortmessages. These messages can get comments from any fan or from the owner ofthe Wall. Most posts and comments were contributed by the fans. The followingtable shows the results of the defined periods of analysis. The comments of airlinesanswering the posts of fans often consist of an apology for inconvenience and ei-ther an instruction, a question or a private message.6
  7. 7. Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers December 1.-8. December 18.-26. SWISS KLM SWISS KLMNumber of airline posts 10 6 11 21Number of fan posts 22 108 40 919Number of fan posts containing rebook 2 13 0 209Number of fan posts containing luggage 0 5 1 82Total number of likes 1392 366 658 1580 Apologise for inconvenience and/or 10 115 28 424 instruction Apologise for inconvenience and/or 2 23 0 130Comments of private message Compliment 2 16 3 27 Airlines Apologise for inconvenience and/or 1 13 1 17 questionFigure 3: Summarizing comparisons of patterns emerging from activities of the Wall for the periods of analysisThe bold numbers show the differences between either the airlines or the two peri-ods of analysis to be discussed.Hardly any fan posts remained uncommented on by the airlines, although the num-ber of KLM posts and comments in the second period caused technical problemson the FB server so that the KLM-FB page-administrators could not access thepage for some hours. Therefore they posted the following text several times on De-cember 18th: Dear all, due to the technical restrictions of FB, we are not able tohandle your requests anymore. Please follow KLM on Twitter so we can help youthere, or contact our call centre both airlines confirmed in the interview that in order to stay transparent,they hardly ever delete posts.The comparison of the fan postings shows that KLM received 919 fan posts in thesecond period and ‘only’ 108 in the first period. The words ‘rebook’ and ‘luggage’were used much more in relation to the first period considering the total number ofposts. Posts containing the word ‘rebook’ are requests to rebook a flight such as“Juanjín Lopez e-tickect 0742480983257 Booking code 2DWC9U AMS -MAD.Please rebook as soon as posibl”.However, there are considerably more ‘likes’ for KLM in the second period than inthe first one, whereas for SWISS this is the other way round. Astonishingly,SWISS received the record number of ‘likes’ (433) for pictures of aircraft in thesnow. For both airlines, there is generally a positive spirit in the fan communities. 7
  8. 8. David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichIn terms of comments from the airlines, KLM interacts much more with the cus-tomers. Some posts are commented and re-commented upon up to five times in aninteractive way, as if the FB page was an electronic chat.4. Social Media triggers Multifaceted Organisational ChallengesCompared to other communication channels, social media is quite fast. Most of thechallenges originate from the sheer dynamics of the social media channel. Thechallenges are summarised in four categories. First, the challenge of providingtimely answers, second, the challenge of finding a balance between input and out-put, third, what administrators to involve and fourth, the constant improvementstriggered by the interaction with fans.4.1 Challenge 1: Answering Everything Requires an Internal Network of Respondents and may lead to Evolving Patterns of CommunicationFans use FB airline FB pages for rebooking, requests, to complain that their lug-gage is lost, to tell their friends that they are looking forward to the journey theyhave just bought a ticket for, or to ask question such as “… Whats the name of thesong we hear when you put us on hold for the US customer support line? …” (Poston KLM FB page on December 26th 2010). For any kind of question coming fromanywhere in the world, the social media managers need to be among the first onesto know the answer. Both airlines confirm that their social media managers invest alot of time in building up an internal (formal or informal) network of reliable andknowledgeable colleagues all over the world that understand the needs of the FB-fans in order to be able to answer questions. The close contact this network of peo-ple also contributes to a better understanding of internal processes and to findingcontent that could be posted by the airlines on the Wall of the FB page. The socialmedia manager of SWISS even manages to organise his network in a way that con-tent is e-mailed to him without asking for it specifically.Another way of coping with the need for fast responses is through patterns of howto comment on posts. Both airlines have established guidelines in order to answersimilar posts in a similar way. SWISS developed the guidelines for answeringcomplaints coming from social media channel independently from the feedback/complaints department. Their guidelines are therefore different from those in thecomplaints department. KLM uses the same rules for the complaints as the feed-back department. However, the tone of voice in feedback on social media is differ-ent to the answers of the complaints’ department.The KLM fan-community seems to have learnt from the first to the second periodof analysis that KLM solves ‘rebook’ problems quite fast if one posts it on FB.8
  9. 9. Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network CarriersKLM confirms that problems posted on social media are treated with a higher pri-ority than normal complaints. Although KLM reminded people not to publish per-sonal data such as ticket numbers on the FB Wall several times during the secondperiod, fans did not refrain from posting personal data. This learning effect thatoccurs in the transparent and permanent interaction of the community and the com-pany can be explained applying the structuration theory of Giddens (1984). Ac-cording to him, actions (quick answers to rebooking requests) create informal struc-tures (e.g. a more customer-oriented complaint channel). Therefore airlines shouldhave powerful complaint departments in order to keep complaints in the complaintsdepartment.The managerial challenge emerging in this context is how to handle communica-tion patterns that run counter to the rules published.4.2 Challenge 2: Costs and Benefits triggered by the Style of CommunicationThe social media community does not appreciate anyone removing user generatedcontent, as transparency on the Internet is an important paradigm (Evans, 2008,211). However, both airlines had to remove a few posts in the past in cases wherefans used very bad language, in cases where they left spam (e.g. advertisements forcompeting services), personal e-mail addresses or other very personal data. KLMdeclares on the FB page which rules they expect their fans to follow when using theWall.The frequency of communication is another factor that influences the style ofcommunication. While KLM interacts strongly with customers by answering postsand comments, it also attracts more posts and more fans than SWISS. The chal-lenge here is not only to decide on whether or not to use a FB Wall, but also to findan optimum balance between input and output through trial and error guided bystrategic aims and marketing goals. The style of communication provides an im-pression of the way the company works. Having many rebooking requests on theFB Wall during a crisis situation might make the FB users perceive that the com-plaints department is not strong enough.4.3 Challenge 3: FB a Multi-Purpose Channel: Who is doing What and When?On 24 December the social media manager of SWISS announced a return on 27th. thFor three days nobody monitored or answered posts. KLM monitored the posts dur-ing this period. Airlines of the size of SWISS and KLM operate 24 hours a day,365 days a year. Fans can always post or comment on the Wall of the FB page. 9
  10. 10. David Caliesch, Andreas LiebrichSWISS confirmed that it will not to leave its fan community on its own for such along time in the future. Therefore, in both airlines, those responsible for SMMwould like to increase the operating hours of the social media manager to 24 hoursa day. Moreover SWISS could imagine distributing the work among different de-partments such as customer service, corporate communication, marketing and salesas fans use the Wall as an additional multi-purpose channel. On the other hand,KLM intends to stick with the model of a central social media hub. Moreover, bothairlines agree that in case of a crisis such as a plane crash, social media managerswould be a part of the crisis team.4.4 Challenge 4: Crowd Sourcing and using the Information for ImprovementsBoth airlines state that they are still in the phase of trial and error. They try to getbetter every day by observing and measuring the outcomes of their activities aswell as by asking fans whether they like something or not. For example, SWISSasked its fans whether they would like to get special offers via the FB page and thecommunity agreed. Moreover, if similar complaints are made repeatedly, it cantrigger an improvement in a particular process. KLM improved the Wi-Fi access inlounges due to complaints on social media channels.KLM aims to simplify the process of getting information about internal processes.Therefore the airline plans to set up a knowledge data-base. The team members ofthe social media hub will enter their knowledge about how they solved a certainproblem. The next time a fan asks something similar, the team members do notneed to ask employees again for the answer, as they can access the knowledge inthe internal database.The challenge here is to take concrete measures for improvement in order to staycredible.4.5 Conclusions and Managerial ImplicationsFor hierarchically organised companies with many specialists, dynamic multi-purpose communication channels like a Wall on FB or a Twitter channel presentseveral challenges with managerial implications:1a. Companies can strongly interact with their fans, but run the risk of fans starting to misuse the Wall for the purposes of resolving their personal problems con- nected with the company (e.g. rebooking and baggage loss). Strong interaction requires more input of resources in terms of personnel than interacting on a less intense level. A third option is to operate a FB page but to disable the Wall such as British Airways does. The fourth way is not to operate an FB page at10
  11. 11. Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers all, but this company runs the risk of a fan setting up an unofficial FB page. The management must decide which way to go.1b. Social media managers must invest in creating an internal network across hier- archies and countries in order to be able to know whom to ask if a question or a complaint is posted on the Wall. As the bonds between a social media manager and specific knowledgeable other employees of the company are very personal, it is a challenge for a new social media manager to reach the quality of his pre- decessor. Putting queries to a database that was fed with knowledge by a pre- decessor may help finding answers quickly. As customers are likely to come up with new questions, a database is not enough. Moreover SWISS confirms that communication styles vary from the social media manager to his boss who used to comment and answer questions on social media channels while the so- cial media manager was out of the office. Aligning communication styles and train a new social media manager to be able to act and react fast in this dynam- ic environment from the first moment on he is in charge of posting and com- menting implies to either an extensive on-the-job-training or to recruit some- body who knows the company and the mechanisms in social media channels.2. The speed of changing behaviour requires a high adaptability to new situations and new patterns of communication. Internal guidelines can help to streamline the methods of communication. However, fans might not remain within the guidelines for behaviour. The implication from this is to deduct a balance be- tween deleting posts or comments contravening the published guidelines and being as transparent as possible from the company’s culture.3. The multi-purpose channel for communicating with fans requires a high pres- ence of social media managers. The interview partners of both airlines con- firmed that they would like to operate a service around the clock during seven days a week as their aircraft also operate around the clock. Social media man- agers must find a way together with the customer service and the crisis man- agement team to share responsibilities or to be empowered to take over a part of their work.4. Social media managers can contribute to improving the service if similar com- plaints are posted frequently. They themselves can steadily learn about the or- ganisation and store their knowledge in order to improve responsiveness. So- cial media managers must be recognized as an important element of the quality assurance.To summarise, findings show that SMM is challenging for companies with spatial-ly scattered services. In practice, there are various approaches to dealing with socialmedia. And more importantly: Although the technical solution for a FB page isfree, it is quite an investment to first establish an internal personal network for in-formation exchange and to operate the Wall on FB. 11
  12. 12. David Caliesch, Andreas Liebrich5. Limitations and Further ResearchIn general, an explorative case study shows challenges in a new field, but does notprovide explanations. The study is further limited to European network carriers.Low cost carriers might face different challenges as they operate point-to-pointconnections. A baggage loss is therefore less likely, but due to lean structures, otherchallenges might occur. Further limitations are cultural differences between thehome markets of airlines. KLM originates the Netherlands which is culturally simi-lar to Switzerland (Gupta, Hanges & Dorfman 2002). In countries with other cul-tures, communication patterns are different and therefore, the FB Wall might play adifferent role.The data collection took place in periods of difficult weather conditions. Data col-lected during normal operating conditions may lead to further categories of chal-lenges and put the issues of customer service to the background.However, according to Cho et al. (2002) excellent online customer services is themost important factor in online customer satisfaction. Their study refers to tradi-tional online customer services. Social media was not part of the studies’ researchobject. The case study of KLM and SWISS shows that the engagement of custom-ers is by far higher if the airline is doing more to getting the customers engaged.Deriving from Cho et al’s findings, the satisfaction of the fans can be hypothised asbeing higher the more the company gets engaged on social media channels. Thefact that in the middle of the snowy period, when some passengers are in troubleand post comments about their troubles, an airline gets 433 ‘likes’ for pictures ofplanes in the snow, is an indicator that the majority of fans are not so much inter-ested reading about troubles (and the solutions to them) on social media channels.If the likes are a proxy for satisfaction, the hypothesis to test must rather be: “Themore ‘likes’ a social media manager collects the higher the level of satisfaction”.Higher customer satisfaction can be one of the benefits for a company of gettingengaged in social media. Another approach to measure success is to evaluate thereturn on investment (ROI). Doing this would trigger many questions because thereis a myriad of ways to measure input and output of SMM. In terms of organisation-al challenges the following question is crucial: What do companies need to do inorder to find the optimum balance between input into a FB Wall and the outcomefrom it?Besides impacts on the ROI, there are impacts emerging from the Wall on how acompany is perceived in the public. These impacts might be an outcome of the cor-porate culture. Doing further research on this hypothised causual relationship couldhelp explaining the importance of social media marketing.12
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  15. 15. Organisational Challenges of using Social Media Marketing: The Case of two Network Carriers List of AuthorsExample:Prof. Dr. Christian LaesserDirectorInstitute for Public Services and TourismUniversity of St. GallenDufourstrasse 40a9000 St. Gallen (Switzerland)E-mail: christian.laesser@unisg.chDavid CalieschLucerne School of BusinessAndreas LiebrichLucerne School of Business 15