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www.derby.ac.uk/science
Ears, feet and injuries: The
development of project based
learning materials in Forensic
Science
D...
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Project based learning
 What is project based learning?
 Creating learning experiences
 New pro...
WHAT IS PROJECT BASED
LEARNING?
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Critical thinking
Group work
Communication
Project based learning - Definition
 Project-based learning is an instructional method
that provides students with comple...
What is needed?
 Collection of resources or data, own direct
observations or measurements.
 A learning activity that enc...
CREATING LEARNING
EXPERIENCES
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Causation of injuries: Lecture based
 A lecture describing injuries with plenty of
“interesting” photographs.
 Organized...
CAUSATION OF INJURIES:
PROJECT BASED
Can be undertaken individually or in small groups
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Introduction and context
 Background reading as
notes, including
terminology A-Z
 Online lecture in
advance
 Links to f...
Series of photographs of injuries
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Report sheets for findings
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Learning activity/instructions
In this instance kept simple as instructions on the
case study sheet.
 Mark the location o...
Including examples from literature
www.derby.ac.uk/science
What worked and developments
 Students tended to circle areas on diagrams rather
than draw in areas of injury.
 Some goo...
FEET AND GAIT ANALYSIS
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Introduction – Short lecture and learning
activity sheet (Silly walks)
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Project 1 – Variability in foot shape
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Statistical analysis
www.derby.ac.uk/science
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Right Left Right Left
2011 2012
Squared
Morton's ...
Project 3 – Hallux valgus
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Project 4 – Eversion to inversion
www.derby.ac.uk/science
What works and developments
 Has to be signposted in advance so students
come with drawings of their own feet reluctant t...
EARS &
EAR IDENTIFICATION
www.derby.ac.uk/science
www.derby.ac.uk/science
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Each group has own information pack
 Instruction sheet for their part of the project.
 Set of images of ears 15 pages of...
www.derby.ac.uk/science
5 separate projects
① Overall shapes of ears – Round, Oval,
Triangular or Square.
② Morphology of the anti-helix crura.
③ ...
Example 1 – Overall shape of the ears
 Ears have been described as Oval, Round,
Rectangular and Triangular. How easy is i...
Why it works
 Sounds very easy until students start working on
the projects.
 There a range of complexities e.g.
 Refer...
Levels of learning and understanding
 Projects need to be appropriate for the level of
learning students are at or reachi...
SUPPORTING MATERIALS
www.derby.ac.uk/science
Pedagogical basis
 There is the whole realm of Instructional Design
Models for learning: ICARE, 4C/ID, Pebble-in-
the-Pon...
Weblinks
 Commoncraft YouTube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMCZvGesRz
8
 Project Based Learning online http://pbl-
onl...
David Bryson
www.derby.ac.uk/scienceCladonia gracilis, Sidlaw Hills, Dundee
http://www.cladonia.co.uk
d.bryson@derby.ac.uk
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Ears, feet and injuries: The development of project based learning materials in Forensic Science

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In Forensic Science we are able to move away from traditional lectures to other ways of supporting learning. These techniques include problem based learning and simulation using mock crime scenes. However, these are quite time consuming and though good for longer sessions are not feasible for a shorter practical sessions. Another way of developing learning materials is through the use of Project Based learning.

The sessions usually consist of a number of elements:
• Introduction to the topic area either as a short talk or online as a lecture in advance of the session.
• A collection of examples in the form of photographs, texts, papers etc.
• Learning activity sheets with specific questions for the session either one for the whole class or a selection of activities that build up to cover the whole topic when students present their findings at the end of the session.
• Tutor providing support as facilitator and guide
• Back-up materials in the form of extra references and links to further reading.

This presentation show how project based learning materials can be created using examples from aspects of human identification i.e. ears and ear-prints, foot anatomy and morphology and injury causation.

Published in: Education
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Ears, feet and injuries: The development of project based learning materials in Forensic Science

  1. 1. www.derby.ac.uk/science Ears, feet and injuries: The development of project based learning materials in Forensic Science David Bryson – Biological and Forensic Sciences BSc Anatomy CertEd MIMI RMIP FHEA
  2. 2. www.derby.ac.uk/science Project based learning  What is project based learning?  Creating learning experiences  New project – Causation of injuries  Developing – Feet and gait analysis  Maturing – Ear identification  Supporting materials
  3. 3. WHAT IS PROJECT BASED LEARNING? www.derby.ac.uk/science Critical thinking Group work Communication
  4. 4. Project based learning - Definition  Project-based learning is an instructional method that provides students with complex tasks based on challenging questions or problems that involve the students' problem solving, decision making, investigative skills, and reflection that includes teacher facilitation, but not direction. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  5. 5. What is needed?  Collection of resources or data, own direct observations or measurements.  A learning activity that encourage students to engage with the resource/data.  Resulting in findings that can be shared with others, especially where there is a suite of projects/learning activities.  Self-contained enough to last a 3 hour session but provoking enough to encourage deep learning, further research and work www.derby.ac.uk/science
  6. 6. CREATING LEARNING EXPERIENCES www.derby.ac.uk/science
  7. 7. Causation of injuries: Lecture based  A lecture describing injuries with plenty of “interesting” photographs.  Organized into categories/classification of injuries.  Linked to telling whether injuries are pre-, peri- or post-mortem.  “I like hearing the sound of my own voice but are students engaged and learning?” www.derby.ac.uk/science
  8. 8. CAUSATION OF INJURIES: PROJECT BASED Can be undertaken individually or in small groups www.derby.ac.uk/science
  9. 9. Introduction and context  Background reading as notes, including terminology A-Z  Online lecture in advance  Links to further relevant books/readings www.derby.ac.uk/science
  10. 10. Series of photographs of injuries www.derby.ac.uk/science
  11. 11. Report sheets for findings www.derby.ac.uk/science
  12. 12. Learning activity/instructions In this instance kept simple as instructions on the case study sheet.  Mark the location of the injury or injuries on the diagram  Description of injuries  Indication of what caused the injury or injuries from your observations  Likely time of injury from what you can observe Pre-mortem ☐ Peri-mortem ☐ Post-mortem ☐ www.derby.ac.uk/science
  13. 13. Including examples from literature www.derby.ac.uk/science
  14. 14. What worked and developments  Students tended to circle areas on diagrams rather than draw in areas of injury.  Some good observations when began to look at patterns.  Suggestions for more work students find their own papers/photographs to use or provide more  Next step could be students develop their own materials/injury sources from research papers that then use to test others in class.  Wider range of diagrams for sheets to suit range of injuries/cases www.derby.ac.uk/science
  15. 15. FEET AND GAIT ANALYSIS www.derby.ac.uk/science
  16. 16. Introduction – Short lecture and learning activity sheet (Silly walks) www.derby.ac.uk/science
  17. 17. Project 1 – Variability in foot shape www.derby.ac.uk/science
  18. 18. Statistical analysis www.derby.ac.uk/science 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Right Left Right Left 2011 2012 Squared Morton's or Greek Egyptian
  19. 19. Project 3 – Hallux valgus www.derby.ac.uk/science
  20. 20. Project 4 – Eversion to inversion www.derby.ac.uk/science
  21. 21. What works and developments  Has to be signposted in advance so students come with drawings of their own feet reluctant to get involved in bare feet in class. (Like to move to scans!)  Students don’t always believe me!  Quite a few have gone out on own and videoed themselves and seen that it was true.  Are more anatomical areas of feet/ankles to explore and relationships with footwear. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  22. 22. EARS & EAR IDENTIFICATION www.derby.ac.uk/science
  23. 23. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  24. 24. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  25. 25. Each group has own information pack  Instruction sheet for their part of the project.  Set of images of ears 15 pages of A4 giving you a total of 59 pairs of ears, this is sufficient to enable some statistics/analysis to be undertaken.  Copies of the ears & earprint handout  Copies of original references related to their part of the ear/ears. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  26. 26. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  27. 27. 5 separate projects ① Overall shapes of ears – Round, Oval, Triangular or Square. ② Morphology of the anti-helix crura. ③ Variations in the helix, specifically the auricular tubercle or Darwin's tubercle. ④ Right and Left ears are identical or are they? ⑤ What is the frequency of ear ornaments, piercings and their positions? www.derby.ac.uk/science
  28. 28. Example 1 – Overall shape of the ears  Ears have been described as Oval, Round, Rectangular and Triangular. How easy is it to match an ear to a shape?  Do you all agree about ears and their shape or is there a certain amount of inter-observer or even intra-observer error?  Is this the best way to describe the overall shape?  Could you work out a better system or revise how this one is described so that it is easier to match ears to a particular shape?  Are the statistics for our sample similar to those from other references? www.derby.ac.uk/science
  29. 29. Why it works  Sounds very easy until students start working on the projects.  There a range of complexities e.g.  References may not be very useful or accurate  Can all images be included  How do shapes relate to impressions.  Moving from B&W into shades of grey – on the balance of probabilities, individual’s views and so inter- and intra-observer error. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  30. 30. Levels of learning and understanding  Projects need to be appropriate for the level of learning students are at or reaching.  If projects are too open ended leaves students floundering.  Some projects will work at Level 4 (HE1), Level 5 (HE2) and Level 6 (HE3).  Some projects require a greater understanding and critical awareness to really get underneath the surface of what is been asked. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  31. 31. SUPPORTING MATERIALS www.derby.ac.uk/science
  32. 32. Pedagogical basis  There is the whole realm of Instructional Design Models for learning: ICARE, 4C/ID, Pebble-in- the-Pond (Merrill), Laurillard’s Conversational Model, ADDIE.  These are useful to develop an understanding of how to construct learning experiences but still have to have the initial ideas and subject based need. www.derby.ac.uk/science
  33. 33. Weblinks  Commoncraft YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LMCZvGesRz 8  Project Based Learning online http://pbl- online.org/  Edutech wiki http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Project- based_learning www.derby.ac.uk/science
  34. 34. David Bryson www.derby.ac.uk/scienceCladonia gracilis, Sidlaw Hills, Dundee http://www.cladonia.co.uk d.bryson@derby.ac.uk

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