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Relief: A Modeling by Drawing Tool David Bourguignon 1   Raphaëlle Chaine 2 Marie-Paule Cani 3   George Drettakis 4 1 Prin...
Outline <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstructio...
On Users <ul><li>Most people draw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Few people sculpt </li>...
Goals <ul><li>Use 2D tools to perform 3D operations </li></ul>
Goals <ul><li>Use 2D tools to perform 3D operations </li></ul><ul><li>Model global and local surface </li></ul>
Goals <ul><li>Use 2D tools to perform 3D operations </li></ul><ul><li>Model global and local surface </li></ul><ul><li>Inp...
Goals <ul><li>Use 2D tools to perform 3D operations </li></ul><ul><li>Model global and local surface </li></ul><ul><li>Inp...
Outline <ul><li>Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstructi...
Previous Work <ul><li>Depth painting [Williams, 1990] </li></ul>+
Previous Work <ul><li>Gradient editing [van Overveld, 1996] </li></ul>
Previous Work <ul><li>Maya 6.0 Artisan [Alias, 2004] </li></ul>
Outline <ul><li>Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstructi...
Tool Workflow <ul><li>First step: drawing input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mid-...
Tool Workflow <ul><li>First step: drawing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2D shape bound...
Tool Workflow <ul><li>First step: drawing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2D shape bound...
Tool Workflow <ul><li>Second step: modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displace existing vertices </li></ul></ul>
Tool Workflow <ul><li>Second step: modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displace existing vertices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cr...
Tool Workflow <ul><li>Changing viewpoint </li></ul>Modeling by drawing Changing viewpoint
Reconstruction <ul><li>Based on evolving pseudo-manifold [Chaine, 2003] </li></ul>
Reconstruction <ul><li>Based on evolving pseudo-manifold [Chaine, 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy our requirements </li></...
Reconstruction <ul><li>Based on evolving pseudo-manifold [Chaine, 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy our requirements </li></...
Reconstruction <ul><li>Based on evolving pseudo-manifold [Chaine, 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy our requirements </li></...
2D reconstruction <ul><li>Start: pseudo-curve lies on oriented edges of Delaunay triangulation </li></ul>
2D reconstruction <ul><li>During: pseudo-curve evolves as long as oriented Gabriel criterion is not met  </li></ul>
2D reconstruction <ul><li>Stop: topologically consistent set of oriented edges </li></ul>
Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pencil ...
Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximate...
Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map (D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertex-...
Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximate...
Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Depth inference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify surface vert...
Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Depth inference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify surface vert...
Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Depth inference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify surface vert...
Outline <ul><li>Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstructi...
Tool Interface <ul><li>Hole marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic books production </li></ul></ul>Hole marks Stone #3 (Avalon ...
Tool Interface <ul><li>Hole marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic books production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our system </li>...
Tool Interface <ul><li>Video: Basic interface </li></ul>
Tool Interface <ul><li>Blobbing </li></ul>Drawing White shading Distance field Height field Surface
Tool Interface <ul><li>Depth modes (chosen by menu) </li></ul>Modeling “at depth” Depth inference Frisket mode
Video <ul><li>Modeling a tree </li></ul>Paper sketch 3D model obtained with Relief
Outline <ul><li>Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstructi...
Results <ul><li>Models (1k to 4k points) </li></ul>
Discussion <ul><li>Intuitive shading convention </li></ul>
Discussion <ul><li>Intuitive shading convention </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with drawing metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No ...
Discussion <ul><li>Intuitive shading convention </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with drawing metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No ...
Conclusion <ul><li>Modeling by drawing, but imprecise </li></ul>
Conclusion <ul><li>Modeling by drawing, but imprecise </li></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedup with loc...
Conclusion <ul><li>Modeling by drawing, but imprecise </li></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedup with loc...
Conclusion <ul><li>Modeling by drawing, but imprecise </li></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedup with loc...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>This work has been performed while the first author was a visiting research fellow at Princeton U...
 
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Relief: A Modeling By Drawing Tool

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This paper presents a modeling system which takes advantage of two-dimensional drawing knowledge to design three-dimensional free-form shapes. A set of mouse or tablet strokes is interpreted by the system as defining both a two-dimensional shape boundary and a displacement map. This information is used for pushing or pulling vertices of existing surfaces, or for creating vertices of new surface patches. To relieve the burden of 3D manipulation from the user, patches are automatically positioned in space. The iterative design process alternates a modeling by drawing sequence and a viewpoint change. To stay as close as possible to the traditional drawing experience, the system imposes the minimum number of constraints on the topology of either the strokes set or the resulting surface.

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Relief: A Modeling By Drawing Tool

  1. 1. Relief: A Modeling by Drawing Tool David Bourguignon 1 Raphaëlle Chaine 2 Marie-Paule Cani 3 George Drettakis 4 1 Princeton University / INRIA Rocquencourt 2 LIRIS / CNRS / UCBL 3 GRAVIR / INP Grenoble 4 REVES / INRIA Sophia-Antipolis
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Sampling & Depth Inference </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  3. 3. On Users <ul><li>Most people draw </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing alternative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Few people sculpt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play-Doh days long gone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials difficult to handle </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Goals <ul><li>Use 2D tools to perform 3D operations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Goals <ul><li>Use 2D tools to perform 3D operations </li></ul><ul><li>Model global and local surface </li></ul>
  6. 6. Goals <ul><li>Use 2D tools to perform 3D operations </li></ul><ul><li>Model global and local surface </li></ul><ul><li>Input: just plain strokes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Goals <ul><li>Use 2D tools to perform 3D operations </li></ul><ul><li>Model global and local surface </li></ul><ul><li>Input: just plain strokes </li></ul><ul><li>Output: triangle mesh </li></ul>
  8. 8. Outline <ul><li>Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Sampling & Depth Inference </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  9. 9. Previous Work <ul><li>Depth painting [Williams, 1990] </li></ul>+
  10. 10. Previous Work <ul><li>Gradient editing [van Overveld, 1996] </li></ul>
  11. 11. Previous Work <ul><li>Maya 6.0 Artisan [Alias, 2004] </li></ul>
  12. 12. Outline <ul><li>Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Sampling & Depth Inference </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  13. 13. Tool Workflow <ul><li>First step: drawing input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mid-grey = 0 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>white > 0 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>black < 0 </li></ul></ul></ul>Model of 3D sphere Pencil Brush
  14. 14. Tool Workflow <ul><li>First step: drawing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2D shape boundary (in green) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defines drawing mask </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Tool Workflow <ul><li>First step: drawing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2D shape boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement regions (from 2 maps) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Tool Workflow <ul><li>Second step: modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displace existing vertices </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Tool Workflow <ul><li>Second step: modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displace existing vertices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create new surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patch </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Tool Workflow <ul><li>Changing viewpoint </li></ul>Modeling by drawing Changing viewpoint
  19. 19. Reconstruction <ul><li>Based on evolving pseudo-manifold [Chaine, 2003] </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reconstruction <ul><li>Based on evolving pseudo-manifold [Chaine, 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy our requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary number of connected components </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Reconstruction <ul><li>Based on evolving pseudo-manifold [Chaine, 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy our requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary number of connected components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle points off shape boundary </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Reconstruction <ul><li>Based on evolving pseudo-manifold [Chaine, 2003] </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy our requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary number of connected components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle points off shape boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive (5k points per second) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 2D reconstruction <ul><li>Start: pseudo-curve lies on oriented edges of Delaunay triangulation </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2D reconstruction <ul><li>During: pseudo-curve evolves as long as oriented Gabriel criterion is not met </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2D reconstruction <ul><li>Stop: topologically consistent set of oriented edges </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pencil and brush data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in color buffer </li></ul></ul></ul>Color buffer
  27. 27. Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximate disp. map sampled at existing vertices </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map (D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertex-Sampled disp. map (V) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error map E = 1 – ABS(D – V) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitrary error value </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximate disp. map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling [Alliez, 2002] </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Depth inference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify surface vertices </li></ul></ul>Vertices ID buffer
  31. 31. Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Depth inference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify surface vertices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign depth values </li></ul></ul>Depth buffer
  32. 32. Sampling and Depth <ul><li>Adaptive sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Depth inference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify surface vertices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign depth values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer depth values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>from existing surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by depth propagation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Outline <ul><li>Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Sampling & Depth Inference </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  34. 34. Tool Interface <ul><li>Hole marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic books production </li></ul></ul>Hole marks Stone #3 (Avalon Studios)
  35. 35. Tool Interface <ul><li>Hole marks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic books production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our system </li></ul></ul>Hole mark
  36. 36. Tool Interface <ul><li>Video: Basic interface </li></ul>
  37. 37. Tool Interface <ul><li>Blobbing </li></ul>Drawing White shading Distance field Height field Surface
  38. 38. Tool Interface <ul><li>Depth modes (chosen by menu) </li></ul>Modeling “at depth” Depth inference Frisket mode
  39. 39. Video <ul><li>Modeling a tree </li></ul>Paper sketch 3D model obtained with Relief
  40. 40. Outline <ul><li>Motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Previous Work </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Workflow </li></ul><ul><li>Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Sampling & Depth Inference </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Interface </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  41. 41. Results <ul><li>Models (1k to 4k points) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Discussion <ul><li>Intuitive shading convention </li></ul>
  43. 43. Discussion <ul><li>Intuitive shading convention </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with drawing metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No continuous visual feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide two modes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Discussion <ul><li>Intuitive shading convention </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with drawing metaphor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No continuous visual feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to obtain continuous shading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide higher-level drawing tools </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Conclusion <ul><li>Modeling by drawing, but imprecise </li></ul>
  46. 46. Conclusion <ul><li>Modeling by drawing, but imprecise </li></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedup with local 3D reconstruction </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusion <ul><li>Modeling by drawing, but imprecise </li></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedup with local 3D reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve depth inference </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Conclusion <ul><li>Modeling by drawing, but imprecise </li></ul><ul><li>Future work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speedup with local 3D reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve depth inference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image-space and object-space sampling </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Acknowledgements <ul><li>This work has been performed while the first author was a visiting research fellow at Princeton University, supported by an INRIA post-doctoral fellowship. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people have indirectly contributed to it. We would like to thank: Adam Finkelstein, Szymon Rusinkiewicz, Jason Lawrence, Pierre Alliez, Mariette Yvinec, Laurence Boissieux, Laure Heïgéas, Laks Raghupathi, Olivier Cuisenaire, Bingfeng Zhou. </li></ul>

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