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The Passive

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construction and use of the passive

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The Passive

  1. 1. The Passive
  2. 2. form
  3. 3. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet.
  4. 4. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
  5. 5. +ive verb
  6. 6. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 1. conjugate ‘to be’ in the same tense as the active
  7. 7. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. past tense 1. conjugate ‘to be’ in the same tense as the active
  8. 8. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. past tense past tense 1. conjugate ‘to be’ in the same tense as the active
  9. 9. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. 2. conjugate the main verb in the past participle
  10. 10. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. main verb any tense 2. conjugate the main verb in the past participle
  11. 11. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. main verb any tense main verb past participle 2. conjugate the main verb in the past participle
  12. 12. —ive verb
  13. 13. Shakespeare didn’t write Volpone. Volpone wasn’t written by Shakespeare. 1. conjugate ‘to be’ in the same tense as the active
  14. 14. Shakespeare didn’t write Volpone. Volpone wasn’t written by Shakespeare. 1. conjugate ‘to be’ in the same tense as the active past tense
  15. 15. Shakespeare didn’t write Volpone. Volpone wasn’t written by Shakespeare. 1. conjugate ‘to be’ in the same tense as the active past tense past tense
  16. 16. Shakespeare didn’t write Volpone. Volpone wasn’t written by Shakespeare. 2. conjugate the main verb in the past participle
  17. 17. Shakespeare didn’t write Volpone. Volpone wasn’t written by Shakespeare. main verb any tense 2. conjugate the main verb in the past participle
  18. 18. Shakespeare didn’t write Volpone. Volpone wasn’t written by Shakespeare. main verb any tense main verb past participle 2. conjugate the main verb in the past participle
  19. 19. subject | agent | object
  20. 20. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
  21. 21. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. subject
  22. 22. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. subject agent
  23. 23. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. agent NOT from
  24. 24. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written in 1601. subject no agent
  25. 25. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
  26. 26. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. object
  27. 27. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. object passive subject
  28. 28. exercise
  29. 29. conjugate the verb take (3rd person) in these tenses: the object is ‘it’
  30. 30. tense active She [TO TAKE] it passive It [TO TAKE] by her present simple +ive She takes it. It is taken by her. present simple –ive … doesn’t take… present simple ?ive Is … taken …? past simple +ive … took … past simple –ive … wasn’t taken … past simple ?ive Did … take …?
  31. 31. tense active She [TO TAKE] it passive It [TO TAKE] by her present simple +ive She takes it. It is taken by her. present simple –ive She doesn’t take it. It isn’t taken by her. present simple ?ive Does she take it? Is it taken by her? past simple +ive She took it. It was taken by her. past simple –ive She didn’t take it. It wasn’t taken by her. past simple ?ive Did she take it? Was it taken by her?
  32. 32. NOW conjugate eat (3rd person) in these other tenses:
  33. 33. tense active He [TO EAT] it passive It [TO EAT] by him will +ive He will eat it. It …. will –ive … won’t be eaten .... will ?ive Will … eat …? would +ive … would be eaten ... would –ive … wouldn’t eat ... would ?ive Would … be eaten ...
  34. 34. tense active He [TO EAT] it passive It [TO EAT] by him will +ive He will eat it. It will be eaten by him. will –ive He won’t eat it. It won’t be eaten by him. will ?ive Will he eat it? Will it be eaten by him? would +ive He would eat it. It would be eaten by him. would –ive He wouldn’t eat it. It wouldn’t be eaten by him. would ?ive Would he eat it? Would it be eaten by him.
  35. 35. NOW conjugate do (3rd person) in these other tenses:
  36. 36. tense active She [TO DO] it passive It [TO DONE] by her present perfect +ive It has been done by her. present perfect –ive … hasn’t done ... present perfect ?ive Has … been done …? present continuous +ive … is doing ... present continuous –ive … isn’t being done ... present continuous ?ive Is … doing …?
  37. 37. tense active She [TO DO] it passive It [TO DONE] by her present perfect +ive She has done it. It has been done by her. present perfect –ive She hasn’t done it. It hasn’t been done by her. present perfect ?ive Has she done it? Has it been done by her? present continuous +ive She is doing it. It is being done by her. present continuous –ive She isn’t doing it. It isn’t being done by her. present continuous ?ive Is she doing it? Is it being done by her?
  38. 38. notice the abbreviations
  39. 39. tense active She [TO DO] it passive It [TO DONE] by her present perfect +ive She’s done it. (has) It’s been done by her. (has) present perfect –ive She hasn’t done it. It hasn’t been done by her. present perfect ?ive Has she done it? Has it been done by her? present continuous +ive She’s doing it. (is) It’s being done by her. (is) present continuous –ive She isn’t doing it. It isn’t being done by her. present continuous ?ive Is she doing it? Is it being done by her?
  40. 40. convert the passives to actives and the actives to passives
  41. 41. active passive He repaired the watch. The money wasn’t stolen by Jane. 1M people read The Chronicle They … It is published every week. The police stopped the motorist. This dress has been worn (by somebody) I have drunk all the beer. Somebody… The alarm was rung. We are using aula 4. They could be stung (by the bees). Will they pay her?
  42. 42. active passive He repaired the watch. The watch was repaired (by him). Jane didn’t steal the money. The money wasn’t stolen by Jane. 1M people read The Chronicle The Chronicle is read by 1M people. They publish it every week. It is published every week. The police stopped the motorist. The motorist was stopped (by the police). Somebody has worn this dress. This dress has been worn (by somebody) I have drunk all the beer. All the beer has been drunk (by me, hic.) Somebody rang the alarm. The alarm was rung. We are using Aula 4. Aula 4 is being used (by us). The bees could sting them. They could be stung (by the bees). Will they pay her? Will she be paid (by them)?
  43. 43. find the mistakes
  44. 44. find the mistakes When will be published the book? I have been done the homework. It was organised from the government. Are you worry by terrorism? The lift has broken by vandals. It is been done. He is been doing the task. Wasn’t invited Gianni? He is been watched. Would be changed your life. The workers haven’t being paid.
  45. 45. find the mistakes When will be published the book? When will the book be published? I have been done the homework. I have been doing / have done the homework. It was organised from the government. It was organised by the government. Are you worry by terrorism? Are you worried by terrorism? The lift has broken by vandals. The lift has been broken by vandals. It is been done. It has been done. He is been doing the task. He has been doing the task. Wasn’t invited Gianni? Wasn’t Gianni invited? He is been watched. He is being watched. Would be changed your life. Your life would be changed. The workers haven’t being paid. The workers haven’t been paid.
  46. 46. using the passive
  47. 47. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
  48. 48. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. this is about Shakespeare
  49. 49. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
  50. 50. Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. this is about Hamlet
  51. 51. we use the passive to stress the object of the original active sentence
  52. 52. we do this for:
  53. 53. 1. emphasis
  54. 54. 1. emphasis German is spoken in Switzerland. He was wounded in the war.
  55. 55. 2. we aren’t interested in the agent
  56. 56. 2. we aren’t interested in the agent These houses were built in 1924. My photos are being printed.
  57. 57. 3. we don’t know the agent
  58. 58. 3. we don’t know the agent My car has been stolen. The damage was done yesterday.
  59. 59. 4. the agent is obvious
  60. 60. 4. the agent is obvious —particularly ‘police’ and ‘courts’—
  61. 61. 4. the agent is obvious —particularly ‘police’ and ‘courts’— He was arrested and sentenced to 5 years in jail.
  62. 62. homework
  63. 63. www.davidnicholson.it

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