Stress timing
When was it?
American Declaration of Independence
American Civil War
Battle of Gettysburg
Lincoln Presidency
Gettysburg Ad...
When was it?
American Declaration of Independence 1776
American Civil War 1861-1865
Battle of Gettysburg 1863
Lincoln Pres...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HPkKQJ0GVMk
&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HPkKQJ0GVMk
&feature=related
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the
great task remaining before us—that from
these honored dead we take increa...
find:
the stress
schwa ə
short ‘i’ ɪ
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the
great task remaining before us—that from
these honored dead we take increa...
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the
great task remaining before us—that from
these honored dead we take increa...
ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə be here dedicated tə thə
great task remaining before us—thət frəm
these honəd dead we take increased...
ɪt ɪs rather for us to bɪ here dedɪcatɪd to the
great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—that from
these honored dead wɪ take ɪncrea...
stressed and
unstressed patterns
ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə bɪ here dedɪcatɪd tə thə
great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—thət frəm
these honəd dead wɪ take ɪncreased...
observe clusters of
stressed syllables
ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə bɪ here dedɪcatɪd tə thə
great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—thət frəm
these honəd dead wɪ take ɪncreased...
observe clusters of
unstressed syllables
ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə bɪ here dedɪcatɪd tə thə
great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—thət frəm
these honəd dead wɪ take ɪncreased...
the stressed syllables mark time
the stressed syllables mark time
the stressed syllables mark time
the stressed syllables mark time
the stressed syllables mark time
some languages get cadence
only from the stressed syllables
others get cadence
from all the syllables
some languages get cadence
only from the stressed syllables
others get cadence
from all the syllables
English
Italian
The languages that get timing
only from the stressed syllables
The languages that get timing
only from the stressed syllables
need to put varying numbers of
unstressed syllables between...
The languages that get timing
only from the stressed syllables
need to put varying numbers of
unstressed syllables between...
The languages that get timing
only from the stressed syllables
need to put varying numbers of
unstressed syllables between...
The languages thatget timing
only from the stressed syllables
need to put varying numbers of
unstressed syllables between ...
for this reason the pronunciation
of the unstressed syllables
is simplified
for this reason the pronunciation
of the unstressed syllables
is simplified
using ɪ and ə
ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə bɪ here dedɪcatɪd tə thə
great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—thət frəm
these honəd dead wɪ take ɪncreased...
unstressed vowel # %
ɪ 18 29%
ə 40 65%
others 4 6%
unstressed vowel # %
ɪ 18 29%
ə 40 65%
others 4 6%
ɪ + ə 58 94%
unstressed vowel # %
ɪ 18 29%
ə 40 65%
others 4 6%
ɪ + ə 58 94%
around 90% of unstressed syllables are
pronounced using sc...
www.davidnicholson.it
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Stress timing

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How stress is used in sentences

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Stress timing

  1. 1. Stress timing
  2. 2. When was it? American Declaration of Independence American Civil War Battle of Gettysburg Lincoln Presidency Gettysburg Address
  3. 3. When was it? American Declaration of Independence 1776 American Civil War 1861-1865 Battle of Gettysburg 1863 Lincoln Presidency 1861-1865 Gettysburg Address 1863
  4. 4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HPkKQJ0GVMk &feature=related
  5. 5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HPkKQJ0GVMk &feature=related
  6. 6. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom— and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
  7. 7. find: the stress schwa ə short ‘i’ ɪ
  8. 8. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom— and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
  9. 9. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom— and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
  10. 10. ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə be here dedicated tə thə great task remaining before us—thət frəm these honəd dead we take increased devotən tə that cause fə which they gave thə last full measə əf devotən—thət we here highly resolve thət these dead shəll not həve died in vain—thət this natən, undə God, shəll have ə new birth əf freedəm—ənd thət govənmənt əf thə peopəl, by thə peopəl, fə thə peopəl, shəll not perish frəm the earth. ə - 40
  11. 11. ɪt ɪs rather for us to bɪ here dedɪcatɪd to the great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—that from these honored dead wɪ take ɪncreased dɪvotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of dɪvotion—that wɪ here highlɪ rɪsolve that these dead shall not have died ɪn vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom— and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perɪsh from thɪ earth. ɪ - 18
  12. 12. stressed and unstressed patterns
  13. 13. ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə bɪ here dedɪcatɪd tə thə great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—thət frəm these honəd dead wɪ take ɪncreased dɪvotən tə that cause fə which they gave thə last full measə əf dɪvotən—thət wɪ here highlɪ rɪsolve thət these dead shəll not həve died ɪn vain—thət this natən, undə God, shəll have ə new birth əf freedəm—ənd thət govənmənt əf thə peopəl, by thə peopəl, fə thə peopəl, shəll not perɪsh frəm thɪ earth.
  14. 14. observe clusters of stressed syllables
  15. 15. ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə bɪ here dedɪcatɪd tə thə great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—thət frəm these honəd dead wɪ take ɪncreased dɪvotən tə that cause fə which they gave thə last full measə əf dɪvotən—thət wɪ here highlɪ rɪsolve thət these dead shəll not həve died ɪn vain—thət this natən, undə God, shəll have ə new birth əf freedəm—ənd thət govənmənt əf thə peopəl, by thə peopəl, fə thə peopəl, shəll not perɪsh frəm the earth.
  16. 16. observe clusters of unstressed syllables
  17. 17. ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə bɪ here dedɪcatɪd tə thə great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—thət frəm these honəd dead wɪ take ɪncreased dɪvotən tə that cause fə which they gave thə last full measə əf dɪvotən—thət wɪ here highlɪ rɪsolve thət these dead shəll not həve died ɪn vain—thət this natən, undə God, shəll have ə new birth əf freedəm—ənd thət govənmənt əf thə peopəl, by thə peopəl, fə thə peopəl, shəll not perɪsh frəm thɪ earth.
  18. 18. the stressed syllables mark time
  19. 19. the stressed syllables mark time
  20. 20. the stressed syllables mark time
  21. 21. the stressed syllables mark time
  22. 22. the stressed syllables mark time
  23. 23. some languages get cadence only from the stressed syllables others get cadence from all the syllables
  24. 24. some languages get cadence only from the stressed syllables others get cadence from all the syllables
  25. 25. English Italian
  26. 26. The languages that get timing only from the stressed syllables
  27. 27. The languages that get timing only from the stressed syllables need to put varying numbers of unstressed syllables between them
  28. 28. The languages that get timing only from the stressed syllables need to put varying numbers of unstressed syllables between them
  29. 29. The languages that get timing only from the stressed syllables need to put varying numbers of unstressed syllables between them 1 103
  30. 30. The languages thatget timing only from the stressed syllables need to put varying numbers of unstressed syllables between them 1 103
  31. 31. for this reason the pronunciation of the unstressed syllables is simplified
  32. 32. for this reason the pronunciation of the unstressed syllables is simplified using ɪ and ə
  33. 33. ɪt ɪs rathə fər us tə bɪ here dedɪcatɪd tə thə great task rɪmainɪng bɪfore us—thət frəm these honəd dead wɪ take ɪncreased dɪvotən tə that cause fə which they gave thə last full measə əf dɪvotən—thət wɪ here highlɪ rɪsolve thət these dead shəll not həve died ɪn vain—thət this natən, undə God, shəll have ə new birth əf freedəm—ənd thət govənmənt əf thə peopəl, by thə peopəl, fə thə peopəl, shəll not perɪsh frəm thɪ earth. ɪ – 18; ə - 40; other unstressed - 4
  34. 34. unstressed vowel # % ɪ 18 29% ə 40 65% others 4 6%
  35. 35. unstressed vowel # % ɪ 18 29% ə 40 65% others 4 6% ɪ + ə 58 94%
  36. 36. unstressed vowel # % ɪ 18 29% ə 40 65% others 4 6% ɪ + ə 58 94% around 90% of unstressed syllables are pronounced using schwa or the short ‘i’
  37. 37. www.davidnicholson.it

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