Present perfect intro

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An introduction to the Present Perfect. What the name means. An explanation of why Italians need to learn this grammar with care. Some exercises in form.

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Present perfect intro

  1. 1. Present Perfectintroduction
  2. 2. Present Perfect I have done …She has done …
  3. 3. Present PerfectCONSTRUCTION:‘to have’ is conjugated in the ‘Present Tense’ I have done … She has done …
  4. 4. Present PerfectMEANING:is before present time I have done … before She has done … now
  5. 5. Present Perfect CONSTRUCTION:‘to have’ (AUX) + Past Participle (MAIN VERB) I have done … She has done …
  6. 6. Present Perfect MEANING: is before present time I have done … beforeShe has done … now
  7. 7. tense gymnastics !
  8. 8. convertpast simple to present perfect andpresent perfect to past simple
  9. 9. past simple present perfectShe made a phone call. They haven’t finished.We didn’t do the homework. Have you seen John?Did you wear the jacket? She has taken her exams.I sang the words. He has shown us how.You didn’t drive to work. We have met before.Did they give you a present?
  10. 10. past simple present perfectShe made a phone call. She has made a phone call.They didn’t finish. They haven’t finished.We didn’t do the homework. We haven’t done the homework.Did you see John? Have you seen John?Did you wear the jacket? Have you worn the jacket?She took her exams. She has taken her exams.I sang the words. I’ve sung the words.He showed us how. He has shown us how.You didn’t drive to work. You haven’t driven to work.We met before. We have met before.Did they give you a present? Have they given you a present?
  11. 11. Definition of the problem
  12. 12. 1.
  13. 13. inside the Present Perfect there are three different grammatical concepts
  14. 14. so you can’t take one idea and apply it universally
  15. 15. 2.
  16. 16. It’s tempting to think that: io ho fatto = I have done io feci = I did
  17. 17. tempting, but wrong!
  18. 18. Sometimes io ho fatto … =I have done …
  19. 19. but other times io ho fatto … = I did …
  20. 20. or, sometimes I have done … = io faccio …
  21. 21. in other words, sometimes theItalian and English constructionscorrespond, and sometimes they don’t
  22. 22. So, if you can’t1. apply a simple rule, or 2. translate,how should you learn the Present Perfect?
  23. 23. ANSWER: you have to learn thethree different functions of the Present Perfect
  24. 24. and if you want you can learn to translate inside each function
  25. 25. www.davidnicholson.it

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