Neutral Will
so far:
(1) we use the present
to refer to the future
this is called aspect
aspect shows how we view
the future
present simple timetabled events
about to immediate future
going to future intentions
present continuous future plans
(2) Will and Shall are
present tense modal verbs
(2) Will and Shall are
present tense modal verbs
that express willingness
modal will and shall willingness
non-modal will and shall escape from aspect!
(3) Will and Shall are
auxiliaries for the neutral future
but what is the neutral future
?
these books don’t agree on what the neutral future is
neutral future means:
neutral future means:
a). no aspect, or
neutral future means:
a). no aspect, or
b). aspect is already
communicated
a). no aspect
no decision
I’ll be 50 in December.
I’ll be 50 in December.
no decision
a). no aspect
no prediction
The next Olympics will be held
in Rio.
The next Olympics will be held
in Rio.
no prediction
a). no aspect
B.P.T.
I’ll be here at 9 o’clock.
I’ll be here at 9 o’clock.
be
I’ll be here at 9 o’clock.
be place
I’ll be here at 9 o’clock.
be place time
I’ll be here at 9 o’clock.
B P T
N.B.
I’m going to arrive here
at 9 o’clock.
I’m going to arrive here
at 9 o’clock.
main verb is
‘arrive’
(not be)
I’m going to arrive here
at 9 o’clock.
so we use
‘going to’
not ‘will’
I’ll arrive here
at 9 o’clock.
so we use
‘going to’
not ‘will’
b). aspect is elsewhere
in the 1st verb
I’m sure
I’m not sure
that I’ll go.
I’m sure
I’m not sure
that I’ll go.
aspect is
HERE
I’m sure
I’m not sure
that I’ll go.
aspect is
HERE
so this part
is neutral
I’m sure
I’m not sure
that I’ll go.
I’m sure
I’m not sure
that I’ll go.
NB ‘certainty’ is
NOT a useful
concept
I think
I don’t think
(that) I’ll stay.
I know (that) she’ll like it.
I don’t know if she’ll like it.
b). aspect is elsewhere
in an adverb
Perhaps
Maybe
it’ll rain later.
It’ll probably rain later.
It’ll probably rain later.
It probably won’t rain later.
It’ll probably rain later.
It probably won’t rain later.
notice that
‘probably’ changes
position
b). aspect is elsewhere
‘when’ and ‘what time’
When
What time
will you arrive?
some cases
I’ll meet John for a coffee.
neutral future?
I’ll meet John for a coffee.
NO!
I’ll meet John for a coffee.
modal will to
respond to a need
“What will you do with John?”
“I’ll meet John for a coffee.”
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
I have this plan
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
it’s already
decided
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
‘going to’ for the
intentional future
when talking about decisions
there’s a clear contrast between
modal will
and
going to
I’ll meet John for a coffee.
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
I’ll meet John for a coffee.
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
new decision
already decided
I’ll meet John for a coffee.
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
new decision
indicative:
factual
I’ll meet John for a coffee.
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
modal:
interpersonal
interaction
present
I’ll meet John for a coffee.
I’m going to meet John
for a coffee
present
Will you go away
at the weekend?
Will you go away
at the weekend?
neutral
future
?
Will you go away
at the weekend?
modal
willingness
?
Will you go away
at the weekend?
modal
willingness
?
neutral
future
?
Will you go away
at the weekend
please?
modal
willingness
?
choose ‘will’ or ‘going to’
I ______ tennis with John tomorrow [play].
Maybe I ______ tennis with John tomorrow [play].
I ...
choose ‘will’ or ‘going to’
I’m going to play tennis with John tomorrow.
Maybe I’ll play tennis with John tomorrow.
I thin...
www.davidnicholson.it
Neutral will
Neutral will
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The auxiliary verb 'will' is tricky to explain

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Neutral will

  1. 1. Neutral Will
  2. 2. so far:
  3. 3. (1) we use the present to refer to the future
  4. 4. this is called aspect
  5. 5. aspect shows how we view the future
  6. 6. present simple timetabled events about to immediate future going to future intentions present continuous future plans
  7. 7. (2) Will and Shall are present tense modal verbs
  8. 8. (2) Will and Shall are present tense modal verbs that express willingness
  9. 9. modal will and shall willingness non-modal will and shall escape from aspect!
  10. 10. (3) Will and Shall are auxiliaries for the neutral future
  11. 11. but what is the neutral future ?
  12. 12. these books don’t agree on what the neutral future is
  13. 13. neutral future means:
  14. 14. neutral future means: a). no aspect, or
  15. 15. neutral future means: a). no aspect, or b). aspect is already communicated
  16. 16. a). no aspect no decision
  17. 17. I’ll be 50 in December.
  18. 18. I’ll be 50 in December. no decision
  19. 19. a). no aspect no prediction
  20. 20. The next Olympics will be held in Rio.
  21. 21. The next Olympics will be held in Rio. no prediction
  22. 22. a). no aspect B.P.T.
  23. 23. I’ll be here at 9 o’clock.
  24. 24. I’ll be here at 9 o’clock. be
  25. 25. I’ll be here at 9 o’clock. be place
  26. 26. I’ll be here at 9 o’clock. be place time
  27. 27. I’ll be here at 9 o’clock. B P T
  28. 28. N.B.
  29. 29. I’m going to arrive here at 9 o’clock.
  30. 30. I’m going to arrive here at 9 o’clock. main verb is ‘arrive’ (not be)
  31. 31. I’m going to arrive here at 9 o’clock. so we use ‘going to’ not ‘will’
  32. 32. I’ll arrive here at 9 o’clock. so we use ‘going to’ not ‘will’
  33. 33. b). aspect is elsewhere in the 1st verb
  34. 34. I’m sure I’m not sure that I’ll go.
  35. 35. I’m sure I’m not sure that I’ll go. aspect is HERE
  36. 36. I’m sure I’m not sure that I’ll go. aspect is HERE so this part is neutral
  37. 37. I’m sure I’m not sure that I’ll go.
  38. 38. I’m sure I’m not sure that I’ll go. NB ‘certainty’ is NOT a useful concept
  39. 39. I think I don’t think (that) I’ll stay.
  40. 40. I know (that) she’ll like it. I don’t know if she’ll like it.
  41. 41. b). aspect is elsewhere in an adverb
  42. 42. Perhaps Maybe it’ll rain later.
  43. 43. It’ll probably rain later.
  44. 44. It’ll probably rain later. It probably won’t rain later.
  45. 45. It’ll probably rain later. It probably won’t rain later. notice that ‘probably’ changes position
  46. 46. b). aspect is elsewhere ‘when’ and ‘what time’
  47. 47. When What time will you arrive?
  48. 48. some cases
  49. 49. I’ll meet John for a coffee. neutral future?
  50. 50. I’ll meet John for a coffee. NO!
  51. 51. I’ll meet John for a coffee. modal will to respond to a need
  52. 52. “What will you do with John?” “I’ll meet John for a coffee.”
  53. 53. I’m going to meet John for a coffee
  54. 54. I’m going to meet John for a coffee I have this plan
  55. 55. I’m going to meet John for a coffee it’s already decided
  56. 56. I’m going to meet John for a coffee ‘going to’ for the intentional future
  57. 57. when talking about decisions there’s a clear contrast between modal will and going to
  58. 58. I’ll meet John for a coffee. I’m going to meet John for a coffee
  59. 59. I’ll meet John for a coffee. I’m going to meet John for a coffee new decision
  60. 60. already decided I’ll meet John for a coffee. I’m going to meet John for a coffee new decision
  61. 61. indicative: factual I’ll meet John for a coffee. I’m going to meet John for a coffee modal: interpersonal interaction
  62. 62. present I’ll meet John for a coffee. I’m going to meet John for a coffee present
  63. 63. Will you go away at the weekend?
  64. 64. Will you go away at the weekend? neutral future ?
  65. 65. Will you go away at the weekend? modal willingness ?
  66. 66. Will you go away at the weekend? modal willingness ? neutral future ?
  67. 67. Will you go away at the weekend please? modal willingness ?
  68. 68. choose ‘will’ or ‘going to’ I ______ tennis with John tomorrow [play]. Maybe I ______ tennis with John tomorrow [play]. I think that I ______ the match at your house [watch]. What ______ you ______ after you finish university [do]? What ______ he ______ if he can’t find the address [do]? Please come in. I ______ a chair for you [get]. I’m not sure I ______ this film [like]. ______ you ______ me with my homework [help]? We ______ friends in Spain this summer [visit]. The next G8 ______ in Russia [not be held]. I ______ in the library after the lesson [be].
  69. 69. choose ‘will’ or ‘going to’ I’m going to play tennis with John tomorrow. Maybe I’ll play tennis with John tomorrow. I think that I’ll watch the match at your house. What are you going to do after you finish university? What will he do if he can’t find the address? Please come in. I’ll get a chair for you. I’m not sure I’ll like this film. Will you help me with my homework? We’re going to visit friends in Spain this summer. The next G8 won’t be held in Russia. I’ll be in the library after the lesson.
  70. 70. www.davidnicholson.it

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