Grammar verbs

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English makes a big distinction between the verbs that carry the main meaning and the verbs that manage the grammar concepts. Understanding this can give greater clarity to tense constructions, pronunciation, etc.

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Grammar verbs

  1. 1. Grammar verbs
  2. 2. How many different structurescan you think of that use only one verb?
  3. 3. example tense +/-/?I’m English. present simple (to be) +iveHe isn’t my friend. present simple (to be) -iveAre you hungry? present simple (to be) ?iveThey were at work. past simple (to be) +iveWe weren’t on holiday. past simple (to be) -iveWas she late? past simple (to be) ?iveThey live in Milan. present simple +iveWe worked hard. past simple +iveWho wants an ice-cream? present simple (subject q.) ?iveWhat happened yesterday? past simple (subject q.) ?iveLook for the answer! imperative +ive
  4. 4. all the other constructions inEnglish need at least 2 verbs
  5. 5. ALL…
  6. 6. grammar verb main verb +/-/? do / does INF (infinitive –to) -ive / ?ive did can will shall may must INF (infinitive –to) -ive / -ive / ?ivecould would should might am / is / are -ive ING (present participle) / -ive / ?ive was / were have / has -ive PP (past participle) / -ive / ?ive had am / is / are -ive PP (past participle) / -ive / ?ive was / were
  7. 7. grammar verb main verb grammar meaning do / does INF (infinitive –to) indicative did can will shall may must INF (infinitive –to) modalcould would should might am / is / are ING (present participle) continuous was / were have / has PP (past participle) perfect had am / is / are PP (past participle) passive was / were
  8. 8. 5 pillars of English
  9. 9. big distinction between grammar verbs and main verbs
  10. 10. grammar verbs form questions main verbs don’t*
  11. 11. grammar verbs form questions main verbs don’t**except subject questions in present and past tenses
  12. 12. grammar verbs form negatives main verbs don’t
  13. 13. grammar verbs form short answers* main verbs don’t *and other very short sentences
  14. 14. grammar verbs allow abbreviations main verbs don’t
  15. 15. grammar verbs haveweak/strong pronunciation main verbs don’t
  16. 16. grammar verbs go before mid-position adverbs main verbs go after
  17. 17. grammar verbs main questions yes only subject questions negatives yes no short answers etc yes no abbreviations yes noweak / strong pronunciation yes no mid-position adverbs verb before verb after only primary and modal meaning yes verbs
  18. 18. 3 types of grammar verb (and 1 hybrid)
  19. 19. 1. primary verb(s) be / (have)grammar and main verb in one conjugated
  20. 20. 2. auxiliary verbs do / be / have / beform tenses for main verb conjugated
  21. 21. 3. modal verbscan / would / must / should etc add meaning to main verb zero conjugation
  22. 22. modal-auxiliary hybridswill / would / shall / shouldform tenses for main verb zero conjugation
  23. 23. primary aux modal modal/aux main do do be be be(have) have have can could will will would would shall shall should should may might must make like ask want etc
  24. 24. identify the verbs in yellow
  25. 25. primary / aux / modal /categorise the verbs in yellow modal-aux / mainI’m English.I’m working.Have you been to Paris?Would you like to work there?He wanted to go.May I help you?I don’t like it.He does it every day.It’s made in Italy.It’s working correctly.It’s mine.
  26. 26. primary / aux / modal /categorise the verbs in yellow modal-aux / mainI’m English. primaryI’m working. auxHave you been to Paris? auxWould you like to work there? modal-auxHe wanted to go. mainMay I help you? modalI don’t like it. auxHe does it every day. mainIt’s made in Italy. auxIt’s working correctly. auxIt’s mine. primary
  27. 27. primary / aux / modal /categorise the verbs in yellow modal-aux / mainI don’t have a dog.I haven’t a dog.I haven’t got a dog.He might have been waiting to go.He might have been waiting to go.He might have been waiting to go.It has been raining.It’s being used.Is it being written?It hasn’t been written.Don’t be stupid!
  28. 28. primary / aux / modal /categorise the verbs in yellow modal-aux / mainI don’t have a dog. auxI haven’t a dog. primaryI haven’t got a dog. auxHe might have been waiting to go. modalHe might have been waiting to go. auxHe might have been waiting to go. mainIt has been raining. auxIt’s being used. auxIs it being written? auxIt hasn’t been written. mainDon’t be stupid! main
  29. 29. grammar verbs are used in several short sentences
  30. 30. 1. short answers Yes, I do.No, you shouldn’t. etc
  31. 31. 2. agreeing replies So does she.Neither would you. etc
  32. 32. 2. agreeing replies So does she.Neither would you. etc
  33. 33. 3. contradicting replies She doesn’t. You would. etc
  34. 34. 4. prompting questions Can you? Were they? etc
  35. 35. 5. question tagsYou speak German, don’t you?She wouldn’t ask, would she? etc
  36. 36. inversion
  37. 37. 1. questionsDo you like Pink Floyd?
  38. 38. 2. exclamations Isn’t it cold?
  39. 39. 3. with ‘may’May the best man win!
  40. 40. 4. after so/neitherin agreeing replies So / neither do I.
  41. 41. 5. after ‘as’, ‘than’ and ‘so’ She was very religious, as were most of her friends.So ridiculous did he look that…
  42. 42. 6. removing ‘if’ from some conditionalsWere she my daughter…
  43. 43. 7. after negative and restrictive expressions At no time were we aware… Only then did I realise…
  44. 44. Under no circumstances…At no time…Not until…Only then…Hardly…Seldom…Little…Not only…
  45. 45. NB no inversion after:Not far…Not long…
  46. 46. www.davidnicholson.it

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