plant cells

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plant cells

  1. 1. A Plant Cell is any type of cell that comes from an organism belonging to the Kingdom Plantae.
  2. 2. Plant cells are eukaryotic cells, or cells with a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike prokaryotic cells the DNA in a plant cell is housed within the nucleus. In addition to having a nucleus, plant cells also contain other membrane- bound organelles, or tiny cellular structures, that carry out specific functions necessary for normal cellular operation. Organelles have a wide range of responsibilities that include everything from producing hormones and enzymes to providing energy for a plant cell.
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  4. 4. Parts of a Plant Cell and its Function
  5. 5. Cell (Plasma) Membrane - a thin, semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents.
  6. 6. Cell Wall - outer covering of the cell that protects the plant cell and gives it shape.
  7. 7. Chloroplasts - the sites of photosynthesis in a plant cell. They contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that absorbs energy from sunlight.
  8. 8. Cytoplasm - gel-like substance within the cell membrane containing water, enzymes, salts, organelles, and various organic molecules.
  9. 9. Mitochondria - this organelle generates energy for the cell.
  10. 10. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes (rough ER) and regions without ribosomes (smooth ER).
  11. 11. Nucleus - membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information.
  12. 12. Nucleolus - structure within the nucleus that helps in the synthesis of ribosomes.
  13. 13. Ribosomes - consisting of RNA and proteins, ribosomes are responsible for protein assembly.
  14. 14. Vacuole - structure in a plant cell that provides support and participates in a variety of cellular functions including storage, detoxification, protection, and growth. When a plant cell matures, it typically contains one large liquid-filled vacuole.
  15. 15. Kinds of Plant Cell
  16. 16. As a plant matures, its cells become specialized in order to perform certain functions necessary for survival. Some plant cells synthesize and store organic products, while others help to transport nutrients throughout the plant. Some examples of specialized plant cell types include:
  17. 17. Parenchyma Cells - although not highly specialized, these cells synthesize and store organic products in the plant. Collenchyma Cells - help to support plants while not restraining growth due to their lack of secondary walls and the absence of a hardening agent in their primary walls. Sclerenchyma Cells - provide a support function in plants, but unlike collenchyma cells, they have a hardening agent and are much more rigid.
  18. 18. Water Conducting Cells-Water conducting cells of xylem also have a support function in plants but unlike collenchyma cells, they have a hardening agent and are much more rigid. Sieve Tube Members-Sieve tube members of phloem conduct organic nutrients such as sugar throughout the plant.
  19. 19. Phloem, like xylem is a complex tissue. There are actually two types of conducting elements in phloem, however sieve tube members provide this function in the majority of angiosperms. Unlike the tracheary elements in the xylem, phloem must be living in order to function. The xylem is a complex tissue. There are two types of sclerenhyma conducting cells in the xylem, the tracheids and vessel elements. The term tracheary element is sometimes used to refer to these cell types.

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