2.2a earthquakes and volcanoes introduction


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2.2a earthquakes and volcanoes introduction

  1. 1. Earth’s Interior and Plate Tectonics Earth’s Interior Weathering Physical and Plate and Erosion Evidence Weatherin Tectonics for Plate gWhat is Earth’s Tectonics ChemicalInterior Weatherin like Transform g Erosion Fault Boundaries Earthquake Plate Convergent Minerals Tectonics s and Plate and Rocks Boundaries Volcanoes Divergent How old Plate Structure are Rocks What are Volcanoe Coundaries and Earthqua s Origin of Rocks
  2. 2. 2011 Japan Earthquake• http://www.youtube.com • http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=iQfdl7y-blE /watch?v=nLUmQrKOyuk• http://www.youtube.com &feature=related /watch?v=zfxlzyOXlic&fea • http://www.youtube.com ture=related /watch?v=1ikus_TEaGI&fe• http://www.youtube.com ature=related /watch?v=TRDpTEjumdo • http://www.youtube.com &feature=related /watch?v=OdhfV-• http://www.youtube.com 8dbCE&feature=related /watch?v=4GFLqsUexZ0 • http://www.youtube.com• http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=w3AdFjklR50&f /watch?v=NW7vENdDu1o eature=relmfu
  3. 3. P waves
  4. 4. P waves
  5. 5. A 1976 earthquake near Guatemala City shattered this bridge in Agua Caliente,cutting off the city’s main supply route to the Atlantic. The 7.5-magnitude quakekilled more than 23,000 people and left thousands more injured and homeless.
  6. 6. A crane and several construction vehicles lay toppled on a fractured road inKobe, Japan, after a 7.2-magnitude temblor shook the quake-prone country.The Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster of 1995 was one of the worst in Japan’shistory, killing 6,433 people and causing more than $100 billion in damages.
  7. 7. The San Andreas Faultscars SouthernCalifornia’s CarrizoPlain like a battlewound. The 800-mile(1,300-kilometer)fault runs throughwestern and southernCalifornia, dividingthe Pacific and NorthAmerican plates.
  8. 8. Workers position support beams to steady tilting homes in San FranciscosMarina District after a disastrous earthquake hit the city in 1989. The 7.1-magnitude earthquake buckled highways and bridges, crushed cars, and toppledhomes and buildings throughout the city.
  9. 9. The Izmith, Turkey Temblor
  10. 10. The Izmith, TurkeyTemblor
  11. 11. The Izmith, Turkey Temblor
  12. 12. The Izmith, Turkey Temblor
  13. 13. The Izmith, Turkey Temblor
  14. 14. Bagiou City, Philippines
  15. 15. Bagiou City, Philippines
  16. 16. Bagiou City, Philippines
  17. 17. Bagiou City, Philippines
  18. 18. 17.2 Earthquakes and VolcanoesVocabulary• Focus• Epicenter• P waves• S waves• Surface waves• Seismology• Richter scale• vent
  19. 19. 17.2 Earthquakes and Volcanoes• Read: “Energy from earthquakes is transferred through Earth by waves” (p568- 569)• Write on your cornell notes information on: – Longitudinal waves – Primary waves – Transverse waves – Secondary Waves
  20. 20. Mayon Volcano, Philippines
  21. 21. Mayon Volcano, Philippines
  22. 22. Mt. Pinatubo, PhilippinesMt. Pinatubo Crater Lake
  23. 23. Mt. Pinatubo, PhilippinesMt. Pinatubo Crater Lake
  24. 24. Mt. Pinatubo, PhilippinesMt. Pinatubo Days Before Eruption
  25. 25. Mt. Pinatubo, PhilippinesMt. Pinatubo: First Eruption
  26. 26. Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines3 Minutes after first Eruption
  27. 27. Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines5 Minutes after first Eruption
  28. 28. Mt. Pinatubo, PhilippinesMt. Pinatubo: 7 minutes after
  29. 29. Mt. Pinatubo, PhilippinesMt. Pinatubo: 10 minutes after
  30. 30. • How volcanoes are formed http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=ANeH9W- HMPc&feature=related
  31. 31. Earthquakes and VolcanoesVocabulary• Focus – the area along a fault at which slippage first occurs, initiating an earthquake.• Epicenter – the point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus.• P waves – primary waves; the longitudinal waves generated by an earthquake
  32. 32. 17.2 Kind of Volcanoes • Shield Volcano Magma rich in iron and magnesium Very fluid Lava flows great distancesEruption mildEruption occur several timesLava produces gently sloping mountain
  33. 33. 17.2 Kinds of Volcanoes• Composite VolcanoMade up of alternating layers of ash, cinders and lavaMagma is thickerGases are trapped in the magma making explosive eruptionsTypically thousand meters highSteeper cones than shield volcanoes
  34. 34. 17.2 Kinds of Volcanoes• Cinder ConeSmallest and most abundant volcanoesTend to be active for a short time then become dormant Vast quantities of ash and lava fall around vent that form the cone Gas-trapped magma – explosive eruption
  35. 35. 17.2 Earthquakes and Volcanoes• Kinds of Volcanoes