Holt Handbook Chapter 6 The Clause: Independent Clauses and Subordinate Clauses
What is a Clause? <ul><li>A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence. </li></ul>*Every clause has a subject and a verb. However, not every clause expresses a complete thought.
The Independent Clause <ul><li>An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a complete sentence. </li></ul>The sun set an hour ago. (This entire sentence is an independent clause) After I finish studying, I will go to the movies. (The sentence contains one subordinate clause and one independent clause) Jean Merill wrote The Pushcart War , and Ronni Solbert illustrated the book. (This sentence contains two independent clauses)
The Subordinate Clause <ul><li>A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence. </li></ul>A word such as that, what, or since often signals the beginning of a subordinate clause. that I wanted what she saw since most plants die without light
The Adjective Clause <ul><li>An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun. </li></ul>An adjective clause usually follows the word or words it modifies and tells which one or what kind. An adjective clause is usually introduced by a relative pronoun. Common relative Pronouns that which who whom whose
The Adverb Clause <ul><li>An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. </li></ul>*An adverb clause tells where, when, how, why, to what extent, or under what condition. An adverb clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction- a word that shows the relationship between the adverb clause and the word or words that the clause modifies. Common Subordinating Conjunctions after although as as if as long as as soon as as though because before how if in order that since so that than though unless until when whenever where wherever whether while
The Noun Clause <ul><li>A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun. </li></ul>A noun clause may be used as a subject, as a complement (such as a predicate nominative, a direct object, or an indirect object), or as an object of a preposition. Common Introductory Words for Noun Clauses how that what whatever when whether which who whoever whom whomever why