Name: Dave Jay S. Manriquez RN.
Subject: Nursing 4004 – Clinical Nursing Information System
1. As a practitioner in our field of specialization, it’s a must to know the hardware components
found on your assigned area/department. Describe common computer inputs, outputs and storage
Answers: Computer inputs and outputs refer to the communication between an information
processing systems such as a computer. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and
outputs are the signals or data sent from it. Inputs and Outputs devices are used by a person (or
other system) to communicate with a computer. For instance, a keyboard or a mouse may be an
input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are considered output devices for a
computer. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards,
typically serve for both input and output. Mouse and keyboards take as input physical movement
that the human user outputs and convert it into signals that a computer can understand. The output
from these devices is input for the computer. Similarly, printers and monitors take as input signals
that a computer outputs. They then convert these signals into representations that human users
can see or read. storage or memory, refers to computer components, devices, and recording
media that retain digital data used for computing for some interval of time. Computer data storage
provides one of the core functions of the modern computer, that of information retention. An
example of these storage devices are the RAM, ROM, USB (flash drives), CD/ DVD. etc
2. Discuss the differences between computer software and computer hardware in the nursing
information system. Gives examples for both components.
Answers: Computer software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored data such as
computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by computers. Software is
intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched". Software includes all the various forms and roles that
digitally stored data may have and play in a computer (or similar system), regardless of whether
the data is used as code for a CPU, or other interpreter, or whether it represents other kinds of
information. Software thus encompasses a wide array of products that may be developed using
different techniques such as ordinary programming languages, scripting languages, microcode.
Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classe: system software,
programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often
blurred. While Computer Hardware is anything that you can see and touch and can be broken or
destroyed if throw to a fifth floor. A personal computer is made up of multiple physical
components of computer hardware, upon which can be installed an operating system and a
multitude of software to perform the operator's desired functions.. Examples of these are the
CPU’s/System Unit, Speaker, Screen, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, Microphone, Joystick, and
3. Discuss computer information system (IS) and their subsets: management information
system (MIS) and hospital information systems (HIS).
Answers: Computer Information Systems defined as a 'bridge' anchored between the
business world and computer science, but this discipline is slowly evolving towards a well-
defined science. Typically, Information Systems (or IS) include people, procedures, data,
software, and hardware (by degree) that are used to gather and analyze information. Specifically
computer-based information systems are complementary networks of hardware/software that
people and organizations use to collect, filter, and process, create, & distribute data. Today,
Computer Information System(s) or CIS is often a track within the computer science field
pursuing the study of computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their
software & hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society. Overall, an IS
discipline emphasizes functionality over design. In a broad sense, the term Information Systems
refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology. A management
information system (MIS) is a subset of the overall internal controls of a business covering the
application of people, documents, technologies, and procedures by management accountants to
solve business problems such as costing a product, service or a business-wide strategy.
Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are
used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization.
Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the group of information management
methods tied to the automation or support of human decision making, e.g. Decision Support
Systems, Expert systems, and Executive information systems. A hospital information system
(HIS), variously also called clinical information system (CIS) is a comprehensive, integrated
information system designed to manage the administrative, financial and clinical aspects of a
hospital. This encompasses paper-based information processing as well as data processing
machines. It can be composed of one or a few software components with specialty-specific
extensions as well as of a large variety of sub-systems in medical specialties (e.g. Laboratory
Information System, Radiology Information System).
4. In the Philippine NI practices, identify the impact of national trends and events that focus on
information and information technologies. You may use your current agency/hospital
(private/public) as a source of information/data. Cite an example.
Answers: As of now where I am having my practice as a nurse trainee in St Anthony Mother and
Child Hospital advancement in modern medical technology is not yet felt. Although the national
and local government is trying to upgrade our practice by compensating on others things like in
the supply of medicines and facilities. They have also equipped us with some devices to make our
work easy like the Non-stress test monitoring device and the Doppler. In our Pharmacy we used
computers there in evaluating the supplies of medicines and stock left but in the wards we used
the charts in writing our data. But I’m still hopeful that in the future we can already use and
benefit from this modern advancement of technologies in our Public Hospitals here in Cebu City,
as well as the whole Philippines.
5. Being a concerned citizen and a registered nurse (RN), issues on health care and other related
health problems arise in our society recently. How will you defend and help promote the security
of good health in your own way.
Answers: Being a registered nurse of the Philippines, it is my obligations to promote health and
safety among our people. It is my job to educate my fellow citizen. I can do this through
discussions in attending school forums those talks about health. Go to Barangays and discuss to
the public on how to maintain optimum wellness. Prevention is better than ounce of cure. If we
can stop things that cause bad health or death we must prevent it already from the start. I will also
inform the public about their right to health, that they have rights for check-ups and assessment in
the hospitals, receive medicines, immunizations and vaccines for free in the health centers.
6. Information system as defined by the practitioners as “a collection and integration of various
pieces of hardware and software and the human resources that meet the data collection, storage,
processing, and report generation needs of an organization,” how will you define Clinical
Information System in nursing informatics.
Answers: Clinical information system in nursing informatics is the integration of clinical
practice and information system using the advancement in medical technology in
improving the kind of care we render to our patients. Clinical information systems consist of
information technology that is applied at the point of clinical care. They include electronic
medical records, clinical data repositories, decision support programs (such as clinical guidelines
and drug interaction checking), handheld devices for collecting data and viewing reference
material, imaging modalities and communication tools such as electronic messaging systems.
Increasingly, care is provided in multiple settings thus creating a need for clinicians to share data
with providers at other locations and to pool them with other clinical data in order to provide a
complete picture of an individual patient. Advances in computer networking and wireless
communication technology have now made it possible for clinicians to access these data from any
location whether it is in the office, the hospital, at home, or even when traveling out of town.
There are many challenges in effectively implementing clinical information systems including
their high cost, the need to change clinical “workflow”, the need for providers to learn new skills,
and challenges in capturing clinical data with a minimum of time and effort on the part of
clinicians and representing it in computers for optimal use. Concerns about security and
confidentiality must also be addressed. Clinical informatics research is actively addressing these
7. With the advent of new technology in your field of specialization, how will you balance your
technical skills and take care of the patient as your priority in patient care system.
Answers: With the advancement of technology in my field of specialization, I can use my skills in
using the new devices/technologies particularly the computers in alleviating the comfort of the
lives of my patients. With the high-tech cctv cameras I can monitor my patient progress and
problems every time, I can immediately assess their needs if they have problems. I can use these
devices especially the computers in monitoring the changes, abnormalities and the effectiveness
of the nursing interventions done to my patients. With all of these modern technologies we must
not forget that we must also need to be hands on with the needs of our patients, we must keep a
balance between the use of the devices and how much care we render to our patients.
8. Discuss Ambulatory Care System in your assigned/designated department (public/private
Answers: I currently volunteer as a nurse trainee in one of the public hospital here in Cebu City,
the St. Anthony Mother and Child Hospital; in here we cater cases of mothers giving birth and
children having medical problems. In our current setting in the hospital, after the mother gives
birth to the new born we encourage the patient to ambulate immediately after 6 hours and after
voiding or as soon as the patient regain her strength after giving birth. I’m shame to admit that
our public hospitals a really far behind in the advancement of technology, we don’t use monitors
in monitoring our patients progress in ambulating, what we usually do is that we try to observe
and then record our observations through the nurses notes. We don’t have devices that will
facilitate in faster improvement of the patient condition. What we usually do is that we tried to
assist our patients every time they walked to go to the comfort room and doing some things.
9. With all the changes in nursing informatics around the world, enumerate and discuss some
innovations in Telehealth.
Answers: Generalized patient information system using the computerized online systems. Usually
hospitals with different departments developed a system to unified their patient record system, by
having a lists of every patient admitted in a particular department where their basic personal
information and admitting diagnosis are listed there. And this is also use to easily locate the
patients admitted for their family to visit. The use also of monitors/cctv cameras that is attach to a
computer, to monitor and assure patient safety and progress. Another are the walking monitors,
cardiac heart rhythm monitor readers, scanning machines and others modern devices that is
control and monitor by using a computer handle by a professional in the field of science and
10. Being public policy makers in the field of nursing, what policy can you make and how will it
be applied in the Philippine setting. What standard policy would you recommend?
Answers: In the start of year 2011, every hospital personnel must have a background already in
using the computer. This is done by having them enrolled in a continuous education program
provided by the government where they can learn in using the computers and other devices. All
medical staff must also undergo with some training and seminars that will further enhance more
their skills in using the devices like the cardiac monitoring devices and others equipments use in
the hospitals. After the May 2010 election, that the incoming government must focus more in
advancing our hospitals especially the public hospitals, where budget must be focused more,
buying new equipments or computers that can be use in these hospitals.