A Descriptive Study On The Effects Of Making Nutrition Conscious Among Adopted Children At Pari
A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF
MAKING NUTRITION CONSCIOUS IN RELATION TO MALNUTRITION
AMONG ADOPTED CHILDREN IN
PARI-AN DROP IN CENTER AGING
6 TO 13 YEARS OLD
A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of
the College of Nursing
In Partial Fulfillment of
The requirements in
Second Semester 2007
Manriquez , Dave Jay Sibi.
January 15, 2007
As a gesture of deep and endless gratitude, the writer would like to acknowledge
the undying assistance of all those who gave their support while he was doing this
research paper, especially:
To my parents who were very understanding and supportive for the production of
this term paper.
To the children in Pari-an Drop In Center who willingly spent their time in
answering our questionnaires permitting us to interview them and listening in our short
discussion about nutrition.
To my Auntie Mrs. Nilda Verdegar, for her all out support in helping the writer in
accomplishing this research paper.
To my friend Ken Fonghe in accompanying the writer in Pari-an Drop In Center
while teaching the children and accomplishing this research paper.
To Mr Ever Niño Doloricon, our adviser, for inculcating our minds and guiding
us in doing this research study.
And above all, to our Lord Jesus Christ, for giving us enough courage, strength,
perseverance and enlightenment to make it through this research study despite all the
obstacles we met along the way.
A descriptive study on the effects of making nutrition conscious in relation to
malnutrition among adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center aging 6 to 13 years old.
A Drop In Center for adopted children is an integral part of society affecting and
influencing it in many ways. The primary purpose of making the adopted children
conscious about nutrition is to provide conditions for and to promote the continuous
growth of the individual in all areas of living, with a view of achieving and maintaining
the democratic way of life.
There must be a relationship between food and the health of the individual, which
tends to influence the health of the society in which he lives in. It has been said that
nutrition is a science concerned with the movements of atoms in man to the movements
of man in society. Because of the tremendous population explosion the supply of food for
all people of the world is indeed becoming more critical every year. As a nutrition
educator we have that moral obligation to help the nutrition of every individual; for
improved nutrition is one factor involved in paving the way towards peace among men.
The nutritional status of our communities is a reflection of our individual
nutritional health. Perhaps the most significant factor affecting the nutritional status of
communities is economics. Having sufficient funds to purchase adequate food supplies is
Theoretical Background of the Study
Malnutrition is a state that adversely affects growth and development of body
functions as a result of either an inadequate or overabundant supply of kilocalories or
nutrients to body tissue. According to Walter Falcon the head of the Food Research
Institute of Stanford University ( 1984:577 ). “ It might focus more attention on Africa
where the most serious hunger exists rather than on Southeast Asia. But if only 100
million individuals are clinically malnourished; there are probably another 200 million to
400 million that go hungry part of the time. If they’re not in the hospital, they’re not
doing too well”.
According to Mary Alice Caliendo ( 1984:526 ). “ Malnutrition and nutritional
deprivation are basically problems of poverty of unequal and inequitable income
distribution not only among individuals but among countries. Malnutrition won’t
disappear by simply producing more food or by raising the overall economic levels of
poor nations. According to Eleanor R. Williams ( 1984:513 ). “ “ Human brains do not
live by bread alone”. Malnutrition causes children to become listless and apathetic.
According to Thomas Polemar, an agricultural economist, ( 1984:515 ). “ The
number of people estimated to be suffering from malnutrition range from 400 million to
two-thirds of the world population”. In his view, food production in developing countries
tends to be understand because taxation is often based on production and because so
much backyard production is locally consumed and never counted.
On the other hand, other authorities insist that much hunger especially in remote
rural areas, is inadequately reported. Larry Minear of the Interreligious Task Force on
United States Policy told an interviewer recently that “ Malnutrition is understated
because there are a lot of people who don’t show up in the planning nets either because
the censuses are bad or because they are not in the market economy and their inability to
purchase food isn’t measured”.
If enough food is to be produced to feed the world a number of resources such as
land, water, energy, fertilizer and technology must be available and widely used.
Conceptual Framework of the Study
This study aim to find out the effects of making nutrition conscious
Statement of the Problem
It is the desire of the writer of this term paper to elucidate on teaching nutrition
for the adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center and to let them be aware of the value
of nutrition. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. Why is there a need to teach nutrition education to those adopted children at
Pari-an Drop In Center?
2. Differentiate between the good nutrition and poor nutrition.
3. Give the functions of nutrients.
4. How to you plan for better nutrition?
The following hypotheses are created in this study:
1. Education about nutrition, education to adopted children at Pari-an Drop In
Center is vital to the prosperity of our country;
2. That the role of teachers is important in the making the adopted children be
conscious of nutrition or of nutrition education;
3. That planning of one’s nutrition is vital to the health of an individual;
4. That the knowledge of nutrition will elevate the standard of living of the
Importance of the Study
This study is of great importance because many of our people have been victims
of malnutrition when in fact, they should not be a victim if they only know the proper
know hows about the food nutrients but somehow because of ignorance they become
victim of their own ignorance. Nevertheless, it has to be corrected once and for all
because if our people have the proper knowledge of nutrition, even the cheapest food in
town can be transformed into a balance diet which would be enough to supply the needs
of the family.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is limited to the answer to the questions being posted in the statement
of the problem and would not deviate from such answers. Minor topics would also be
discussed but only on a limited scale. The focal points of the study are on the imparting
of knowledge of nutrition to the adopted children at Pari-an Drop In Center aging 3 to 10
For the gathering of important data and materials, the writer utilized the
descriptive method of research through the proper utilization of the library, conducting
interviews, and giving questionnaires to those children. He was fortunate enough to have
all the access in the library and materials within his reach and helped in the finalization of
the subject matter and also the willingness of those respondents to participate and answer
Definition of Term Used
For a better and clearer understanding of the study, some of the terms are defined:
Nutrition. It is the science of nourishing the living organism; that is, of providing
adequate food for its growth, maintenance and repair. A process wherein living
organisms utilizes food for the maintenance and repair of tissue and production of
Good Nutrition. Benefits the well-balanced diet.
Poor Nutrition. Lack of essential nutrients.
Nutrition. It is the combination of processes by which the living organisms
receives and utilizes the nutrients from food for the maintenance of its function
and for the growth of tissues.
Malnutrition. Condition resulting from a lack of nutrients in the body tissue.
Descriptive Study. A careful or critical examination: investigation having the
quality or function of describing: characterized by description.
Health Status. State or the condition of the body and mind.
II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Much have been written about nutrition education and the writer is sure that
many students have already written on the same subject matter nevertheless, he
has his own way of presenting from the others. The subject matter is quite
common that anybody can afford to write about it as a partial fulfillment of the
requirements of their instructor.
Writes-up written by McWilliam, Pattisons, Barbours, and Andersons and etc.
were utilized by the writer. At least these authors are prominent in their own
fields especially on nutrition.
The writer through painstaking efforts have made her own unique
presentations but of course through his limited knowledge he would only deal on
some enlightenment about the subject matter.
Some Aspects of Nutritional Problems
This study deals mainly with those aspects of nutritional problems and their
solutions which are the primary concern of health workers. In due course a further
research on the interdisciplinary nutrition programs, commonly known as applied
nutrition programs will be prepared. This will primarily concern with the public health
nutrition and the accurate definition of nutritional status in the community; where there is
a necessary correction and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, and the organization of
an adequate nutrition component in public health services. No one can deny that
economic factors are the most obvious ones, responsible for malnutrition. Malnutrition is
a serious public health problem mainly prevalent in developing countries; where incomes
are barely adequate.
Nutrition education, relevant to the needs reaching to the homes and capable of
being applied in family food patterns is the ultimate road to good nutrition. It is therefore
a means rather than an end. It should be practical and applied, adapted to economic and
agricultural possibilities and in harmony with the socio-cultural setting.
Nutrition education should include effective demonstration, and sometimes
supplementary feeding of vulnerable groups, proctored by the mother in food preparation.
It can be an invaluable part of community development both in urban and rural areas. The
emphasis should be on building better health through better food habits as well as on
preventing malnutrition and diseases.
Nutrition Education among adopted children in Pari-an Drop In Center
Increasingly we find the emphasis in health programs directed to proper food and
nutrition. This is true for all age groups. If a healthy population is to be maintained, it is
essential to begin the nutrition education very early in the life of the child. Because a
center which promote nutrition touches so many of the homes in the community it is in a
position to assume a major role in this early nutrition education. Children are in school
during their formative years when food habits and mental attitudes toward food habits are
being established and when normal development depends to a large extent on the
consumption of an adequate diet.
Classroom education in nutrition should begin when the child enters kindergarten
or the first grade and continue throughout the entire school life. The school teaches
nutrition may find that more alert and healthy pupils are one result of such teaching.
Nutritional requirements change as the infant grows through childhood into
adolescence. Nutrition influences all phases of growth and development is usually
measured by changes in height and weight with age. Stature is the more significant
criterion because a variation is build and the amount of adipose tissue may cause wide
variations in weight. Development other than physical growth is more difficult to
measure; it deals with muscle strength and coordination, with mental health, with
adoptions and attitudes.
The rapid rate of growth of the brain, which starts before birth persists in the
infant, and stays well in advance of the growth of the rest of the body, by the time a child
is four years old some 90 percent of the brain has been formed. The formation and
functioning of the brain and nerve fibers and the laying down of the myelin sheats of the
nerves demands that adequate nutrients of the right type be available at this critical
During the early formative years, the brain acquires each new specific function
and integrates the process into its total pattern of performance and experience. Each new
function seems to make its appearance chronologically at a critical period of
It has been recognized that certain inborn errors of metabolism that certain in
brain damage called mental retardation. This mental retardation is to be most evident
where protein-calorie malnutrition is most serious, is lesser degrees of early malnutrition
may result in a child lower intellectual capacity than his genetic intellectual.
Growth occurs continuously from conception to full maturity but it is not a
uniform process. It has two periods of rapid growth separated by a period of more or less
uniform but slower increase in size. The first period occurs in fatal life and early infancy,
the second during adolescence.
What is Good Nutrition and Poor Nutrition
Good nutrition means right eating. It means an adequate diet. Good nutrition helps
to promote strong and healthy bodies between appearances, active and keen minds, and
greater resistance to disease, longer life, and a greater ability to enjoy life. It is important
to remember that without good nutrition no one can have optimum health.
While poor nutrition means wrong eating. It means an inadequate diet. Poor
nutrition may contribute to weak and undernourished bodies, bad teeth, poor mental
development, lack of preparation, nervousness, lowered resistance to disease, lack of
endurance and the consequences of an inadequate diet.
The results of inadequate diets divide two types hollow hunger and bedridden
hunger. Hollow hunger results from an insufficient quantity or volume of food. It is felt
in the stomach. People are usually aware of hollow hunger and therefore will take steps to
alleviate it by trying to obtain sufficient food. Starvation is the name for prolonged
hollow hunger. Hidden hunger results from insufficient amounts of the protective foods,
vitamins, minerals, and proteins. It may be present without the individual knowing it, it
may be present even when the individuals eats sufficient fool as far as quantity is
The Functions of the Nutrients
Each nutrient serves at least one of the following general functions when taken
into the body. It yields heat and energy, it builds and revenues body tissues, and it
regulates body process of various types.
The value of food such as bread, carrots or milk, will depend upon the kinds and
amounts of nutrients which it supplies.
The following list gives the food classes or nutrients groups of their general
functions. Carbohydrates from which glucose is derived, supply heat and energy. The
energy value of foods is called the calorie. Fats do supply energy and heat. Minerals build
tissue and regulate body processes.
Vitamins aid growth and help to regulate body processes.
Water acts as a medium for transporting materials in the body, and aids in the
elimination of waste and in the regulation of body temperature.
Planning for Better Nutrition
The way to better nutrition is usually to improved farming and gardening.
Education is vital and needs to be related to local problems, to help people make the best
use of their resources, especially for the nutritionally vulnerable members of their
families. These are community problems best dealt with by the community education and
development techniques that apply to all aspects of community life and planning.
Because food and nutrition problems involved many phases of community action, and
their solution demands interdisciplinary and interagency planning, coordination and
However, practical nutrition education and action is needed at community level,
at intermediate levels and at national level, involving workers in the fields of education,
agriculture, community development, etc. as well as health workers.
III. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
One of the realistic approaches to the solution of these problems as they comprise
a multi-frontal attack on the various causes of under and malnutrition, nutritionally
inappropriate food behavior and improving food production. For the purpose of
demonstration form is put up proper techniques of improving food and nutritional
conditions particularly children and mothers through self-help efforts. However, the
school gardening or green revolution will emphasize today in the new society of
promoting food production.
The following recommendations are hereby offered by the writer:
1. Every teacher in Pari-an Drop In Center must be teaching the proper use of
food and better health.
2. Educational materials should be needed in teaching nutrition among the
adopted children in Pari-an Drop In Center.
3. Their teacher must assign those children in gardening to have more
knowledge on livelihood.
4. Parents of those in the community must be invited in the center while
demonstration lessons are being done in the home economics.
5. The students need Reading materials, not only if it is pleasant reading, but
also it is essential to present and future knowledge of those children.
Answer the following questions by checking the appropriate column or by
writing it in phrase.
1. What is your source of water for drinking?
____ Mineral Water _____ Artesian Well (bomba)
____ MCWD/ Pipe System _____ Others: (specify): _____
2. What are the foods usually served during mealtime?
( breakfast, lunch and dinner )
a. Meat d. Vegetables
b. Fish e. Others Specify:_______
3. Do you kids eat on time? ____ Yes _____ No
4. Do you kids have a snack? ____ Yes _____ No
5. What are the snacks being served by the center? Enumerate…______________
Do you kids take them all? ____ Yes _____ No
6. Do you kids prefer eating junk foods? ____ Yes _____ No
Answer No. 6 to 8 if you check yes for No.5
7. What kind of junk foods? Specify: _______________________
8. How many times and the amount being taken in eating the junk foods?_________
9. Why do you eat junk foods?
a. Peer influences
b. Media influences
10. Do you kids drink milk or chocolate drinks? ____ Yes _____ No
11. Do you kids eat foods coming from a can? ____ Yes _____ No
How many times you kids usually eat it? ____
12. Do you kids eat nutritious fruits and vegetables?
____ Yes _____ No _____ Sometimes
13. Do the center have regular deworming schedules for you children?
_____ Yes _____ No
14. How often?
_____ Every 3 months _______ Annually
_____ Others specify:___________
15. Do you kids have a health worker or nutritionists in the center?
_____ Yes ______ No
16. Are the health workers and nutritionists assigned in the center actively doing
their job in controlling malnutrition?
_____ Yes ______ No
_____ Advice you children to eat nutritious foods
_____ Advice you children to keep your surrounding always clean
_____ Do nothing to help you gain more information with regards to proper
_____ Others specify:______________
18. Does the Barangay Captain show concern for your welfare in the center?
____ Yes _____ No If Yes, in what way?_________
19. Does the Barangay Councilors show concern for your welfare in the center?
____ Yes _____ No If Yes, in what way?_________
20. Do your teachers teach you about proper nutrition and those proper foods to
be eaten that are essential for growth?
_____ Yes ______ No