Wars Of Religion Thirty Years War

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Wars Of Religion Thirty Years War

  1. 1. Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)
  2. 2. Most important war of the 17th c <ul><li>Failure of the Peace of Augsburg 1555 </li></ul>
  3. 3. First Phase: Bohemian Phase <ul><li>Defenestration of Prague (1618) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holy Roman Emperor placed sever restrictions on Protestantism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two HRE officials thrown out a window and fell 70 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Emperor then sought to annihilate the Calvinist nobility in Bohemia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protestant forces defeated and Protestantism was eliminated in Bohemia </li></ul>
  4. 4. Second Phase: Danish Phase <ul><li>Height of Catholic power during the war </li></ul><ul><li>Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercenary general paid by the emperor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edict of Restitution (1629) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All church territories that had been secularized since 1552 automatically restored to Catholic Church </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious rights </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Third Phase: Swedish Phase <ul><li>Protestants liberated territory lost in Danish Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Gustavus Adolphus (King of Sweden) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led army that pushed Catholic forces back to Bohemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Breitenfeld 163--Ended Hapsburg hopes of reuniting Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HREer reluctantly annulled the Edict of Restitution </li></ul><ul><li>France feared resurgence of Catholicism in the HRE </li></ul>
  6. 6. Forth Phase: French (International) Phase <ul><li>Cardinal Richelieu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allied with the Protestant forces to defeat the HRE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies reflected Catholic France’s paramount diplomatic concerns as political, not religious; thus politique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most Destructive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture collapsed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 million dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Massive inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade crippled throughout Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France did not want strong state on eastern border </li></ul>
  7. 7. Treaty of Westphalia 1648 <ul><li>Ended Catholic Reformation in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Renewal of Peace of Augsburg but added Calvinism as a politically accepted faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany remain divided for centuries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dissolution of HRE confirmed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Netherlands and Switzerland gained their independence from Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300+ German states become sovereign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pope denied right to intervene in HRE affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (future Prussia) received various territories and gained international stature </li></ul><ul><li>The two Hapsburg branches were weakened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish saw empire dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austrian lost much influence in Germany </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Results of the Thirty Years’ War <ul><li>Germany physically devastated </li></ul><ul><li>Further divided by decline of the HRE </li></ul><ul><li>Ends the wars of religion </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning of the Rise of France as the dominant European power; also accelerated the continued rise of Britain and the Netherlands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance of power diplomacy emerges in Europe </li></ul></ul>

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