Wars Of Religion French Civil Wars

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Wars Of Religion French Civil Wars

  1. 1. Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 French Civil Wars
  2. 2. Hapsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) <ul><li>Treaty of Cateau-Cambr ésis 1559 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended period of dynastic wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated period of religious wars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>France kept HRE from gaining hegemony in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Spain got control of Sicily, Naples, and Milan </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wars of Religion <ul><li>1560-1648 wars fought largely over religious issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain to squash Protestantism in Western Europe and Islam in Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Catholics to squash Huguenots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HRE to re-impose Catholicism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calvinist Netherlands to break away from Spanish rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil war in England between Puritans and Anglicans </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. French Civil Wars <ul><li>9 wars (1562-1598) </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Henry II in 1559 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three week sons could not provide the necessary leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carherine de M édici </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nobles convert to Calvinists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper class-surface issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower classes fueled by preachers </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. St. Bartholomew Day Massacre (Aug 24, 1572) <ul><li>Marriage of Margaret of Valois to Protestant Henry of Navarre </li></ul><ul><li>Leader of Catholic aristocracy Henry of Guise had leader of Huguenot party murdered </li></ul><ul><li>12000-20000 Huguenots killed 8/24-10/3 ordered by Catherine de M édicis </li></ul><ul><li>War of the Three Henrys </li></ul>
  6. 6. Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) (r. 1589-1610) <ul><li>Ended the French Civil Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Was a politique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris “Paris is worth a mass” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edict of Nantes 1598 a degree of religious toleration to Huguenots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities, public office, fortified towns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More like a truce in the religious wars </li></ul></ul>

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