Animal science intro

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Animal science intro

  1. 1. Introduction to Animal Science Animal Contributions to Human Needs
  2. 2. Animal Contributions <ul><li>Food – Clothing – Livelihood – Pleasure – Work – Health Products – By-products </li></ul><ul><li>50% of farm income is derived from the sales of livestock and related products </li></ul><ul><li>When the opportunity exists …., most humans consume both plant and animal products --- Meat is almost always consumed in quantity when available! </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>First and foremost, ……. we are caretakers and beneficiaries of animals and livestock production </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors of Livestock Production <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul>
  5. 5. Livestock Production <ul><li>The most important factor of animal production is the conversion of feed into food (proteins) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sources of the World’s Protein by Species <ul><li>Fish 38 % </li></ul><ul><li>Pork 23 % </li></ul><ul><li>Beef 23 % </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry 12 % </li></ul><ul><li>Lamb 3 % </li></ul><ul><li>Goat .8% </li></ul><ul><li>Buffalo .6% </li></ul><ul><li>Horse .4% </li></ul>
  7. 7. Feed Conversion Efficiency <ul><li>Animal Product Protein Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs 26% 18% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk 25% 17% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicken meat 23% 11% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turkey meat 22% 9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pork 14% 14% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beef 6% 3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamb 5% 2% </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. U S / Capita Consumption of Red Meat & Poultry Year Beef Pork Lamb Veal Chicken Turkey Total 1970 84.4 55.4 2.9 2.5 40.1 12.0 197.3 1980 76.4 56.8 1.4 1.5 47.4 14.4 197.9 1990 67.5 49.4 1.4 1.1 60.6 17.6 197.6 2000 67.5 52.5 1.1 .7 77.4 18.0 217.2 2001 66.0 50.0 1.1 .6 76.2 18.0 211.9 2002 67.5 51.3 1.2 .6 80.1 18.1 219.1 2003 64.8 51.6 1.1 .6 81.1 18.2 217.4 2004 65.8 50.9 1.1 .5 84.5 18.4 221.2
  9. 9. Share of Sales ($) at Retail Meat Case <ul><li>Beef 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry 23% </li></ul><ul><li>Packaged Cold Cuts 09% </li></ul><ul><li>Pork 07% </li></ul><ul><li>Cooked Sausage 06% </li></ul><ul><li>Hot Dogs 04% </li></ul><ul><li>Cured Ham 04% </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon 04% </li></ul><ul><li>Lamb 01% </li></ul><ul><li>Veal 01% </li></ul><ul><li>Uncooked Sausage 01% </li></ul>
  10. 10. Animal Husbandry “ the care & management of livestock” <ul><li>Two major groups of domesticated animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammals – animals that grow hair and produce milk for their young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aves – animals that grow feathers, lay eggs, have no teeth and no diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both of these groups of animals are “ Homeothermic ” – they have the ability to maintain a constant body temperature and are warm blooded </li></ul><ul><li>Management of the animals environment is extremely important for profitable livestock production! </li></ul>
  11. 11. U. S. Livestock Statistics <ul><li>Beef Cattle 98 M head $72.0 B </li></ul><ul><li>Swine 60 M head $ 4.5 B </li></ul><ul><li>Broilers 441 M head $ 1.0 B </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep 6.7 M head $ .6 B </li></ul>
  12. 12. Production Advancement % Improvement 1925- 2000 <ul><li>Beef </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wt. marketed / cow 220 to 540 = +240% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dairy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk produced / cow 4189 to 16,400 = +391% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Swine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wt. marketed / sow 1,600 to 4,590 = +287% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broilers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed / lb. gain 4.0 to 1.9 = - 2.10% </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Livestock Exports <ul><li>World Trade – essential to the economic well-being of U.S. livestock producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major products of economic significance are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cattle hides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beef meat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat / Tallow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pork products & meat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy Products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lives cattle & swine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Producers must understand consumer preferences for the food they eat …… <ul><li>Consumer Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience is a must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meals “just in time” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food as an emotional element </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation of high availability at all times of the year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diet is upgraded as income rises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumer Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality is multifaceted: style, taste, image, freshness, packaging, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value-added foods in highest demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers are losing culinary skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick-fix diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation for a safe food supply chain </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. U.S. Livestock Numbers 1920 to present <ul><li>What has happened to livestock numbers and production over the past 100 years? </li></ul><ul><li>Beef cattle – </li></ul><ul><li>Swine – </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy cattle – </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep – </li></ul><ul><li>Broilers – </li></ul><ul><li>Laying Hens - </li></ul>
  16. 16. Beef Cattle Production <ul><li>Cow numbers have been upward with peaks and valleys in 10 year cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow numbers were highest in 1976 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearing highs now as cow numbers build up 2004-2007 (western draught may temper #s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production has been supported by heavier carcasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat content of carcass is biggest problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marbling & Tenderness are current issues </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dairy Cattle <ul><li>Cow numbers were steadily lower between 1945 and 2000 with cow numbers down 65%, but milk production slightly higher </li></ul><ul><li>Cow numbers increasing in highly integrated business units </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of bio-technology </li></ul>
  18. 18. Sheep <ul><li>Ewe numbers down dramatically by more than 80% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of synthetic textiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated management of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower demand for lamb and mutton </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Swine <ul><li>Steady production with significant fluctuations in numbers of pigs / year and resulting price swings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% decrease in swine producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of swine enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manure management and land use tied to swine production growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent return on investment over the years </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Laying Hens <ul><li>Laying Hens sharp decline in number of hens and eggs between 1970 and 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol scare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current expansion of hens due to increased population in U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of cholesterol problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic demand / Mc Egg ……… demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tremendous production efficiency improvement </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Broilers & Turkeys <ul><li>Tremendous increase in production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Totally integrated production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent demand for product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch for bird flu?????? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The Livestock Industry In the State of Iowa <ul><li>Significant Economic Impact………. </li></ul><ul><li>A major source of Jobs -- 166,000 total </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs related to livestock production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>110,000 jobs @ $25,000 avg. salary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs related to livestock processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>56,000 jobs @ $29,000 avg. salary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Livestock marketing represents ~ 50% of net farm income </li></ul>
  23. 23. Economic Activity <ul><li>The 70’s saw a shift to crop production </li></ul><ul><li>The 80’s saw difficult financial times </li></ul><ul><li>The 90’s saw a reinvestment in livestock facilities & adoption of new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>The 00’s have seen concentration of livestock ownership, new methods of business involvement, and increased public involvement and concern over all phases of production </li></ul>
  24. 24. Focus on Value-added…… <ul><li>Production – free-range, organic, animal friendly, out-door, family farm, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Processing – new products, quick fix, enhanced nutrient content, branded products, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Iowa has a dominant 25% market share of hogs, is the leader in egg production, has many small beef cow/calf operations, and tremendous capacity for fed beef production. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Livestock Operations <ul><li>Large contributors of State Income through taxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly $200 million in state tax revenues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large property tax base </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12% of job and related income taxes </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Gross Receipts, Income & Jobs Gross $ Employ-ment $ Net $ Jobs All Livestock $500 M $40 M $60 M 70,000 Cattle $210 M $15 M $24 M 16,000 Hogs $300 M $20 M $34 M 28,000 Dairy $ 50 M $ 3 M $11 M 6,500 Meat Packing $700 M $43 M $80 M 23,000
  27. 27. Will Meat Exports Increase?? <ul><li>Increased per capita consumption of red meat </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing population </li></ul><ul><li>Improved global economies </li></ul><ul><li>World’s fastest growing markets require meat from exporting countries to be free of deadly viruses causing foot & mouth and ….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports currently add ~ $3.00 / cwt to hog price and more than $10.00 / cwt for cattle </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Livestock Production In Iowa <ul><li>Advantages – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abundance of feed grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower ration costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly productive land resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker productivity is very high </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Livestock Production In Iowa <ul><li>Disadvantages / needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt technology to improve efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public does not support expansion policies for livestock production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short on market expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental regulations are quite protective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property taxation is high </li></ul></ul>

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