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Introduction to
Assistive Technology
for ICT
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
What is Assistive
Technology?
Any technology that helps people with disabilities
to perform...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
Types of Assistive Technologies we
will discuss today
•AT for Physical Disabilities
•AT for...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Plan for the session
•Introduction to computer accessibility
•Physical Disabili...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Assistive Technologies for Access to
ICT
•Rapidly growing area of AT
•Opportuni...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Computer Components
•Processor
•Memory
•Memory Storage Devices
•Input devices
•...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Operating systems
•Windows
•Mac
•Linux
•Others (e.g. text based operating syste...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Common Applications
•Communication
•Internet
•Messaging (SMS, Chat, Email)
•Voi...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Computer Access Strategies
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Computer Access Strategies
•Workstation positioning/ergonomics
•Adaptations & A...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Computer Access Tools
•Operating System Accessibility Tools
•Accessibility Soft...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Workstation positioning and ergonomics
Important to establish optimum position ...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Visual Ergonomics
•Relate position of screen to client
•Consider use of externa...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Access Method Ergonomics
Avoid:
•Repetitive Strain Injury
•Abnormal Tone
•Assoc...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Adaptations and
Alternatives
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Adaptations : Stabilize Control
•Key guards
•Wrist rests
•Keyboard Pos...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Adaptations: Extend Control
Hand pointers, dowels, sticks
Head pointer...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard adaptations: Change Layout
•Dvorak
•Right handed Dvorak
•Left handed D...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Alternative Keyboard Arrangements
Dvorak
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 [ ]
‘ , . p y f g ...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Adaptations: Operating
System Changes
•Sticky keys, key latch
•Adjust ...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Adaptations: Operating
System Changes
Keyboard Settings:
Start - > Con...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Adaptations: Operating
System Changes
•Repeat Delay
First time before
...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Adaptations: Operating System Changes
Accessibility Options
Start->Con...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Adaptations: Operating System Changes
StickyKeys
Lock control keys on
...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Group Work
Operating System Changes:
Keyboard Adaptations
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Alternatives to the Standard Keyboard
•Alternative keyboards
•Speech Recognitio...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Alternative Keyboards
•Mini Keyboards
•Expanded Keyboards
•Chording keyboards
•...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Alternative Keyboards – Windows On
Screen Keyboard
Start ->Programs
-> Accessor...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Alternative Keyboards – On Screen
Mouse Access
Switch access
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Alternatives to Keyboards – On Screen
Dasher
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Alternatives to Keyboards - Speech Recognition
•Ideal for dictation style tasks...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Mouse Alternatives and
Adaptations
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Mouse Adaptations: Operating System
Changes
Start ->Control Panel
->Mouse
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Mouse Adaptations: Operating System
Changes
Mouse Driver Adjustments
Tracking S...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Mouse Adaptations: Operating System Changes
MouseKeys
Start ->Control Panel
Acc...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Mouse Adaptations: Keyboard Equivalents
Allow control of computer through keybo...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Group Work
Operating System Accessibility Options:
Mouse Adaptations
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Mouse Alternatives
•Trackball
•Joysticks
•Touch Pad
•Touch screen, touch window...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Mouse Alternatives cont…
Head Mouse
Scanning
Morse Code
Eye gaze
Integrated Dev...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Eye Gaze
Direct Selection
Expensive
‘Magic Touch’ effect
What you look at is wh...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Alternatives to Standard Clicking
Switches
Hand switch
Foot switch etc…
Timed C...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Performance Enhancement
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Computer Performance Enhancement
•Word Prediction/Word Completion
•Abbreviation...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Word Prediction/Completion
THE RE
1 RENT
2 REST
3 REAL
4 REALLY
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Abbreviation Expansion
ASAP As soon as possible.
HU? How are you doing?
Can be ...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Keyboard Shortcuts
Lots of keyboard shortcuts
Eliminate the need for the mouse ...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Macros
•Often-done tasks
Starting up certain programs (e.g. Internet)
•‘Mouse-h...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Altering the computer output
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
Sensory Disabilities - Vision
General ways to help someone with Visual Impairment:
• Appear...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
• Changing the colour scheme
can make the easier to read
text and viewing images
• Color sc...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
• Up to a basic degree such
scheme modifications can be
done from within Windows
• There ar...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
Pointers
Sensory – Vision Impairment
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
• Enlarging the contents of the
screen greatly improves the
usability of a computer for peo...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
• A screen reader is a software that interprets what is being displayed on the screen
and o...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
Group Work
Operating System Accessibility Options:
Appearance, Magnification, and Screen Re...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
• Braille is a system in which characters (text
& numbers) are represented by a
combination...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
• Portable Braille Notetakers
Portable Solutions for the Blind
Sensory – Vision Impairment
...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
Sensory – Hearing Impairment
General ways to help someone with Hearing Impairment:
• Visual...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
Sensory – Hearing Impairment
• Some helpful options are available within Windows
Start >> C...
Expanding Horizons Through ICT
Sensory – Hearing Impairment
• Close Captioning
Closed captioning displays an interpretatio...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Learning Difficulties
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
 Text is easier to create and edit than handwriting
 Diary and organisational...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
 Spelling and punctuation can be left until writer has
expressed most of their...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
 Clarity of image on screen
 More readable than handwritten text whilst worki...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
 Physically easier to press a key than to form a letter
 Some can struggle wh...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Choice of keyboard
 Uppercase helps with confusables such as b & d (B & D)
 L...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
 Evidence to say that people learn finger patterns
rather than spelling of act...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Fonts
This is an example of Times New Roman - 33pt
This is an example of Arial ...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Line Spacing
Ctrl + 1 = Single spacing Ctrl + 5 = 1.5 spacing
Double Spacing ca...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
AutoCorrect
Corrects common errors
automatically.
Capitalises first letter of a...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
 Changing the colour
scheme within Windows can
make the text easier to read
 ...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
+
=
Helps to identify errors in:-
Punctuation
Spelling errors
Incorrect words
M...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Word Prediction
Penfriend
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
TextHelp Read and Write
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Mind Mapping
• Inspiration
• Mind Manager
• SparkSpace
•Freemind
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Uses:
• People with limited or no hand skills
• People with Dyslexia
• Quick te...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Advantages:
•Spelling always correct
•Quick to input text
•Can be used hands-fr...
Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise
Case Studies
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Introduction to Assistive Technology

Old presentations such as this are interesting to view - this presentation from 2010 makes little reference to the wide use of mobile devices, tablets or ebook readers.

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Introduction to Assistive Technology

  1. 1. Introduction to Assistive Technology for ICT
  2. 2. Expanding Horizons Through ICT What is Assistive Technology? Any technology that helps people with disabilities to perform a function or activity that they wouldn’t be able to perform otherwise.
  3. 3. Expanding Horizons Through ICT Types of Assistive Technologies we will discuss today •AT for Physical Disabilities •AT for Sensory Disabilities (Vision and Hearing) •AT for Learning Difficulties
  4. 4. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Plan for the session •Introduction to computer accessibility •Physical Disabilities: •Keyboard alternatives/adaptations •Mouse alternatives/adaptations •Sensory Disabilities: •Altering the computer output •Learning Difficulties : •Basic tools and techniques
  5. 5. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Assistive Technologies for Access to ICT •Rapidly growing area of AT •Opportunities for independent living •Communication •Tele-learning •Potential for flexible employment •Entertainment
  6. 6. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Computer Components •Processor •Memory •Memory Storage Devices •Input devices •Output devices
  7. 7. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Operating systems •Windows •Mac •Linux •Others (e.g. text based operating system, simplified systems)
  8. 8. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Common Applications •Communication •Internet •Messaging (SMS, Chat, Email) •Voice/Video (mobile comms, VOIP) •Word-processing •Media Creation/Management •Office Applications •Leisure •E-books •Games •Online Shopping etc…
  9. 9. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Computer Access Strategies
  10. 10. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Computer Access Strategies •Workstation positioning/ergonomics •Adaptations & Alternatives to the standard keyboard/mouse •Adaptations & Alternatives to the standard monitor/output •Performance enhancement
  11. 11. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Computer Access Tools •Operating System Accessibility Tools •Accessibility Software •Access software •Performance enhancement •Educational software •Accessibility Hardware •Alternative access devices •Adaptations
  12. 12. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Workstation positioning and ergonomics Important to establish optimum position for access Factors: Visual ergonomics Access method ergonomics
  13. 13. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Visual Ergonomics •Relate position of screen to client •Consider use of external keyboard/monitor •Consider visual requirements of access method – does the client need to see this and the screen simultaneously
  14. 14. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Access Method Ergonomics Avoid: •Repetitive Strain Injury •Abnormal Tone •Associated movements •Startle reflex •Intention tremor / ataxia
  15. 15. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Adaptations and Alternatives
  16. 16. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Adaptations : Stabilize Control •Key guards •Wrist rests •Keyboard Positioning
  17. 17. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Adaptations: Extend Control Hand pointers, dowels, sticks Head pointers, headwand Mouthstick
  18. 18. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard adaptations: Change Layout •Dvorak •Right handed Dvorak •Left handed Dvorak •Chubon •Alphabetic •Frequency of use (scanning)
  19. 19. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Alternative Keyboard Arrangements Dvorak 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 [ ] ‘ , . p y f g c r l / = a o e u i d h t n s - ; q j k x b m w v z Left hand Dvorak = - / p f m l j 4 3 2 1 ; q b y u r s o . 6 5 k c d t h e a z 8 7 ‘ x g v w n i , 0 9 Right Hand Dvorak 1 2 3 4 j l m f p / - = 5 6 q . o r s u y b ; 7 8 z a e h t d c k 9 0 x , i n w v g ‘ Chubon for one pointer ‘ [ ] 3 2 1 v u p 6 7 8 = - 4 q m i t s c k z 9 : 5 j g n r e h b y x 0 / ‘ f o a d l w
  20. 20. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Adaptations: Operating System Changes •Sticky keys, key latch •Adjust key repeat rate •Slow keys, delayed acceptance •Filter keys, Bounce keys •Toggle keys •Alternative keyboard layouts
  21. 21. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Adaptations: Operating System Changes Keyboard Settings: Start - > Control Panel Keyboard
  22. 22. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Adaptations: Operating System Changes •Repeat Delay First time before repeats character •Repeat Rate Time between characters
  23. 23. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Adaptations: Operating System Changes Accessibility Options Start->Control Panel Accessibility Options
  24. 24. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Adaptations: Operating System Changes StickyKeys Lock control keys on FilterKeys Ignore repeated presses ToggleKeys Sounds for control keys
  25. 25. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Group Work Operating System Changes: Keyboard Adaptations
  26. 26. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Alternatives to the Standard Keyboard •Alternative keyboards •Speech Recognition •Onscreen keyboard •General Input Device Emulating Interfaces (GIDEIs) •Serial Keys •Coded access (i.e., Morse Code)
  27. 27. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Alternative Keyboards •Mini Keyboards •Expanded Keyboards •Chording keyboards •Touch Screen •AAC/Other devices •Morse Code •Serial Keys
  28. 28. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Alternative Keyboards – Windows On Screen Keyboard Start ->Programs -> Accessories -> Accessibility Options
  29. 29. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Alternative Keyboards – On Screen Mouse Access Switch access
  30. 30. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Alternatives to Keyboards – On Screen Dasher
  31. 31. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Alternatives to Keyboards - Speech Recognition •Ideal for dictation style tasks •Requires consistent/clear speech •Requires visual monitoring •Not for all environments •Cognitively demanding •Requires training •Best used in conjunction with other methods
  32. 32. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Mouse Alternatives and Adaptations
  33. 33. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Mouse Adaptations: Operating System Changes Start ->Control Panel ->Mouse
  34. 34. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Mouse Adaptations: Operating System Changes Mouse Driver Adjustments Tracking Speed Click Speed Trails Radar Cursor Size
  35. 35. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Mouse Adaptations: Operating System Changes MouseKeys Start ->Control Panel Accessibility Options ‘Mouse’ Tab Control the mouse using the number pad arrows
  36. 36. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Mouse Adaptations: Keyboard Equivalents Allow control of computer through keyboard Possible to use most aspects of computer without mouse Some ‘global’ shortcuts (e.g. Ctrl+C) List of Windows shortcuts online Some program specific shortcuts Look these up in the help file Alt / Tab – allow you to access menus
  37. 37. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Group Work Operating System Accessibility Options: Mouse Adaptations
  38. 38. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Mouse Alternatives •Trackball •Joysticks •Touch Pad •Touch screen, touch window •Hands-free mouse, ultrasonic mice, infrared reflective mice •Speech Recognition ‘MouseGrid’ Control of Menus
  39. 39. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Mouse Alternatives cont… Head Mouse Scanning Morse Code Eye gaze Integrated Devices
  40. 40. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Eye Gaze Direct Selection Expensive ‘Magic Touch’ effect What you look at is what you get Requires stable positioning Systems improving in this
  41. 41. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Alternatives to Standard Clicking Switches Hand switch Foot switch etc… Timed Clicking - Dwell Keyboard Clicking
  42. 42. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Performance Enhancement
  43. 43. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Computer Performance Enhancement •Word Prediction/Word Completion •Abbreviation Expansion •Keyboard shortcuts •Macro Applications
  44. 44. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Word Prediction/Completion THE RE 1 RENT 2 REST 3 REAL 4 REALLY
  45. 45. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Abbreviation Expansion ASAP As soon as possible. HU? How are you doing? Can be done in Word
  46. 46. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Keyboard Shortcuts Lots of keyboard shortcuts Eliminate the need for the mouse entirely! If used well, decrease the amount of switching between keyboard/mouse Save effort and time
  47. 47. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Macros •Often-done tasks Starting up certain programs (e.g. Internet) •‘Mouse-heavy’, or ‘Mouse Only’ tasks Assign a key to click the centre of the screen Assign a key to open all your emails… •Automate complex tasks Single key to copy/paste •Anything!
  48. 48. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Altering the computer output
  49. 49. Expanding Horizons Through ICT Sensory Disabilities - Vision General ways to help someone with Visual Impairment: • Appearance • Visual Themes • Color Contrast • Magnification • Alternative senses of communication • Audio • Tactile - Same principles apply to provide computer access to people with Vision Impairment
  50. 50. Expanding Horizons Through ICT • Changing the colour scheme can make the easier to read text and viewing images • Color schemes can be fully customised for each user • High Contrast color schemes tend to work best for people with low vision Color Schemes Sensory – Vision Impairment
  51. 51. Expanding Horizons Through ICT • Up to a basic degree such scheme modifications can be done from within Windows • There are various Assistive Technology software that provide more flexibility and allow us to do this to much greater extent Color Schemes Sensory – Vision Impairment
  52. 52. Expanding Horizons Through ICT Pointers Sensory – Vision Impairment
  53. 53. Expanding Horizons Through ICT • Enlarging the contents of the screen greatly improves the usability of a computer for people with low vision • Can be achieved by various means: • Accessibility options within Windows • Magnification Software • Desktop CCTV Magnifiers • Handheld Video Magnifiers Magnification Sensory – Vision Impairment
  54. 54. Expanding Horizons Through ICT • A screen reader is a software that interprets what is being displayed on the screen and outputs it via the computer speakers • Often used in conjunction with a Magnification software by people with low vision • Often used in conjunction with a Braille Display by blind people Screen Readers Sensory – Vision Impairment
  55. 55. Expanding Horizons Through ICT Group Work Operating System Accessibility Options: Appearance, Magnification, and Screen Reader Sensory – Vision Impairment
  56. 56. Expanding Horizons Through ICT • Braille is a system in which characters (text & numbers) are represented by a combination of dots laid out in specific shapes • Braille display is an electro-mechanical device for displaying Braille characters, usually by means of raising dots through holes in a flat surface Braille Display Sensory – Vision Impairment
  57. 57. Expanding Horizons Through ICT • Portable Braille Notetakers Portable Solutions for the Blind Sensory – Vision Impairment • Daisy Book Readers • Solutions for Mobile Phones • Talks & Zoom (Screen Reader & Magnifier) [Symbian OS] • Mobile Speak Gold (Screen Reader, Magnifier, Color Recognizer) [Symbian OS / Windows Mobile] • Oratio (Screen Reader) [Blackberry] • Eyes Free (Screen Reader, Modify Visual Layout) [Android Phones] • iPhone Accessibility Suite (Screen Reader, Magnifier, Color Contrast Modification) [iPhone]
  58. 58. Expanding Horizons Through ICT Sensory – Hearing Impairment General ways to help someone with Hearing Impairment: • Visual Notifications • Flash screens • Sign Language • Communicate information via Text • Auditory Amplification
  59. 59. Expanding Horizons Through ICT Sensory – Hearing Impairment • Some helpful options are available within Windows Start >> Control Panel >> Ease of Access Control Panel >> Use text or visual alternatives for sounds
  60. 60. Expanding Horizons Through ICT Sensory – Hearing Impairment • Close Captioning Closed captioning displays an interpretation of the audio portion of a video as it occurs, sometimes including non-speech elements. Close Captioning solution examples • Dotsub (Online) • Magpie • Deaf Blind Communication •Voice to sign language
  61. 61. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Learning Difficulties
  62. 62. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise  Text is easier to create and edit than handwriting  Diary and organisational software available  Dictionaries, Thesaurus, Encyclopedias, online resources can improve written communication  “Get Round” Technology allows writer to concentrate on the message they want to get across rather than how to write it  Finding information in electronic documents easier than trawling through a book if you are struggling to read How a computer can help
  63. 63. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise  Spelling and punctuation can be left until writer has expressed most of their ideas. Specialised spellcheckers can help as standard utilities don’t always look at context (see ode to the spellchecker!)  Text manipulation and planning tools allow the structure to be decided later  The writer can forget that writing is difficult and concentrate on the needs of the reader  Student can be encouraged to write more Encourages Speed
  64. 64. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise  Clarity of image on screen  More readable than handwritten text whilst working  Professional finish of printout  Positive impact on motivation and self esteem Clarity and Presentation
  65. 65. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise  Physically easier to press a key than to form a letter  Some can struggle when remembering how to draw a letter – b-d-p-q – can be particular problems Keyboard and Typing
  66. 66. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Choice of keyboard  Uppercase helps with confusables such as b & d (B & D)  Lowercase keyboards available if struggling with capitals  ABC if QWERTY difficult or to reinforce alphabet learning  High contrast or larger letter stickers are available  Basic keyboards to minimise distraction Keyboard and Typing
  67. 67. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise  Evidence to say that people learn finger patterns rather than spelling of actual words free Touch Typing Tutor www.sense-lang.org/typing Touch-Typing
  68. 68. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Fonts This is an example of Times New Roman - 33pt This is an example of Arial - 33pt This is an example of Comic Sans – 33pt This is an example of Verdana – 33pt
  69. 69. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Line Spacing Ctrl + 1 = Single spacing Ctrl + 5 = 1.5 spacing Double Spacing can help – highlight the text and press Ctrl + 2 on the keyboard.
  70. 70. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise AutoCorrect Corrects common errors automatically. Capitalises first letter of a sentence and names of days, months etc. Abbreviation Expansion
  71. 71. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise  Changing the colour scheme within Windows can make the text easier to read  Schemes can be fully customised for each user Colour Schemes
  72. 72. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise + = Helps to identify errors in:- Punctuation Spelling errors Incorrect words Missed words Extra words Scanning and Text to Speech
  73. 73. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Word Prediction Penfriend
  74. 74. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise TextHelp Read and Write
  75. 75. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Mind Mapping • Inspiration • Mind Manager • SparkSpace •Freemind
  76. 76. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Uses: • People with limited or no hand skills • People with Dyslexia • Quick text entry for non-Touch Typists • People with RSI Voice Recognition
  77. 77. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Advantages: •Spelling always correct •Quick to input text •Can be used hands-free Disadvantages: •Steep learning curve (training recommended) •Requires ordered thinking skills •Needs consistent & fairly clear speech Considerations: •Computer specifications
  78. 78. Expanding Horizons through ICT The promise Case Studies

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