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Ch. 1 plainchant & secular monophony

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Ch. 1 plainchant & secular monophony

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Plainchant and Secular Monophony History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-1 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  2. 2. The Emergence of Plainchant Gregorian chant • supposed creator: Pope Gregory I • existed before his reign of 590- 604 • development continued after him History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-2 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  3. 3. Partially diastematic chant notation. The neumes of the earliest notated sources indicate the general contours but not the actual pitches of the chants. Shown here are the opening chants of the Mass Proper for Easter Sunday copied in eastern France around 930. History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-3 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  4. 4. The Elements of Plainchant Plainchant • pure melody • no harmony • no accompaniment • no added voices History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-4 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  5. 5. The Elements of Plainchant Five elements of plainchant 1. Liturgical function 2. The relationship of words and music 3. Mode 4. Melodic structure 5. Rhythm History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-5 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  6. 6. The Elements of Plainchant Liturgical function The Office • observed primarily by cloistered monks and nuns rather than laity • local practices varied considerably and changed over time History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-6 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  7. 7. The Elements of Plainchant Liturgical function The Mass • mixture of spoken, recited, sung elements • every celebration of Mass (the Ordinary) • specific to particular Sundays orHistory of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-7 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  8. 8. The Elements of Plainchant Relationship of Words and Music Chant: • syllabic - each syllable of text has own note • neumatic - each syllable is sung to between two and six notes • melismatic - a single syllable is sung to many notes History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-8 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  9. 9. The Elements of Plainchant Mode • specific pattern of whole steps and half steps • melodies end on a characteristic pitch (the finalis or final) and move up and down within a particular range (ambitus) History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-9 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  10. 10. The Elements of Plainchant Melodic Structure • limited number of intervallic patterns • many stepwise intervals History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-10 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  11. 11. The Guidonian hand. Attributed to Guido of Arezzo, the Guidonian hand was a mnemonic device for students learning solmization syllables and the structure of the gamut, which begins at the tip of the thumb (Gamma ut) and circles around the hand, each joint representing a particular pitch. History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-11 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  12. 12. The Elements of Plainchant Rhythm Two interpretations - • all notes are of essentially equal durational value • all notes are not of equal durational value History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-12 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  13. 13. The Expansion of Plainchant • troping was most important source of new repertory after 9th century • trope is a musical or textual addition to existing chant History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-13 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  14. 14. Secular Monophony Songs in Latin • passed easily across linguistic boundaries • great appeal to wandering minstrels who provided entertainment History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-14 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  15. 15. Secular Monophony France Troubadours and Trouvères • active in 12th and 13th centuries • trobairitz is a female troubadour • repertories included love songs, laments, pastorals, dialogues, courtly History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-15 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  16. 16. Secular Monophony The Iberian Penisula Cantigas (“songs”) • texts written in Gallo- Portuguese • most were syllabically set • strophic form with a refrain History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-16 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
  17. 17. Secular Monophony Germany Minnesinger • developed their own repertory of songs • Minnelieder were written in bar form creating the pattern of AAB History of Music in Western Culture, 3e 1-17 © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. By Mark Evans Bonds Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

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