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CONTROLLING
Dattatreya Reddy Peram
Assistant Professor, Dept. of MBA
CBIT., Proddatur
Controlling - Meaning
• Controlling consists of verifying whether
everything occurs in confirmities with the plans
adopted, instructions issued and principles
established.
• Controlling ensures that there is effective and
efficient utilization of organizational resources so
as to achieve the planned goals.
• Controlling measures the deviation of actual
performance from the standard performance,
discovers the causes of such deviations and helps
in taking corrective actions
Controlling - Definition
• According to Brech, “Controlling is a
systematic exercise which is called as a
process of checking actual performance
against the standards or plans with a view to
ensure adequate progress and also recording
such experience as is gained as a contribution
to possible future needs.”
Controlling - Definition
• According to Donnell, “Just as a navigator
continually takes reading to ensure whether
he is relative to a planned action, so should a
business manager continually take reading to
assure himself that his enterprise is on right
course.”
• Controlling has got two basic purposes
It facilitates co-ordination
It helps in planning
Features of Controlling
• Controlling is an End Function
• Controlling is Forward looking
• Controlling is a dynamic process
• Controlling is related with planning
• Controlling is an end function- A function
which comes once the performances are
made in confirmities with plans.
• Controlling is forward looking- because
effective control is not possible without past
being controlled. Controlling always look to
future so that follow-up can be made
whenever required.
Features of Controlling
• Controlling is a dynamic process- since
controlling requires taking reviewal methods,
changes have to be made wherever possible.
• Controlling is related with planning- Planning
and Controlling are two inseperable functions of
management. Without planning, controlling is a
meaningless exercise and without controlling,
planning is useless. Planning presupposes
controlling and controlling succeeds planning.
Features of Controlling
Controlling - Process
• Establishment of standards
• Measurement of performance
• Comparison of actual and standard
performance
• Taking remedial actions
• Establishment of standards- Standards are the plans or the targets
which have to be achieved in the course of business function. They
can also be called as the criterions for judging the performance.
Standards generally are classified into two-Measurable or tangible -
Those standards which can be measured and expressed are called
as measurable standards. They can be in form of cost, output,
expenditure, time, profit, etc.
• Non-measurable or intangible- There are standards which cannot
be measured monetarily. For example- performance of a manager,
deviation of workers, their attitudes towards a concern. These are
called as intangible standards.
• Controlling becomes easy through establishment of these standards
because controlling is exercised on the basis of these standards.
Controlling - Process
• Measurement of performance- The second major step in controlling is to
measure the performance. Finding out deviations becomes easy through
measuring the actual performance. Performance levels are sometimes
easy to measure and sometimes difficult. Measurement of tangible
standards is easy as it can be expressed in units, cost, money terms, etc.
Quantitative measurement becomes difficult when performance of
manager has to be measured. Performance of a manager cannot be
measured in quantities. It can be measured only by-
• Attitude of the workers,
• Their morale to work,
• The development in the attitudes regarding the physical environment, and
• Their communication with the superiors.
• It is also sometimes done through various reports like weekly, monthly,
quarterly, yearly reports.
Controlling - Process
• Comparison of actual and standard performance- Comparison of actual performance
with the planned targets is very important. Deviation can be defined as the gap
between actual performance and the planned targets. The manager has to find out two
things here- extent of deviation and cause of deviation. Extent of deviation means that
the manager has to find out whether the deviation is positive or negative or whether
the actual performance is in conformity with the planned performance. The managers
have to exercise control by exception. He has to find out those deviations which are
critical and important for business. Minor deviations have to be ignored. Major
deviations like replacement of machinery, appointment of workers, quality of raw
material, rate of profits, etc. should be looked upon consciously. Therefore it is said, “ If
a manager controls everything, he ends up controlling nothing.” For example, if
stationery charges increase by a minor 5 to 10%, it can be called as a minor deviation.
On the other hand, if monthly production decreases continuously, it is called as major
deviation.
Once the deviation is identified, a manager has to think about various cause which has
led to deviation. The causes can be-
• Erroneous planning,
• Co-ordination loosens,
• Implementation of plans is defective, and
• Supervision and communication is ineffective, etc.
Controlling - Process
• Taking remedial actions- Once the causes and extent
of deviations are known, the manager has to detect
those errors and take remedial measures for it. There
are two alternatives here-Taking corrective measures
for deviations which have occurred; and
• After taking the corrective measures, if the actual
performance is not in conformity with plans, the
manager can revise the targets. It is here the
controlling process comes to an end. Follow up is an
important step because it is only through taking
corrective measures, a manager can exercise
controlling
Controlling - Process
Controlling - Techniques
• Traditional Techniques
• Modern Techniques
Traditional Techniques
• Personal Observation
• Statistical Data
• Break Even Analysis
• Budgetary Control
Traditional Techniques
• Personal Observation: This is oldest method of
controlling. Manager get quick information about
the employee and this in turn put the employee
to focus more on the work rather to waste time.
• Statistical Data: Statistical data may be used in
the form of charts, tables and graphs. The
presentation quality depends upon the accuracy
of the data. Such reports are used for managerial
control.
• Break Even Analysis Helpful to evaluate the cost
of production, volume of production, sales and
revenue generated. Point where there is not
profit no loss is known as break even point.
BEP = Fixed Cost SP/U – VC/U
• Budgetary Control It is the oldest technique of
control. It provides the standard by which actual
operations can be evaluated to know variations
from the planned expenditures.
Traditional Techniques
Modern Techniques
• Management Information System
• Programme Evaluation Review Technique
• Critical Path Method
• Management Audit
• Management information system : At every function
organization has to take important decisions. Quality of
decision is directly linked with the nature and quality of
information provided. An effective information system is
vital for efficient decision and management.
• Programme Evaluation review Technique: PERT includes
planning, monitoring and controlling of project. It is helpful
in project management problems like – construction ,
promotion of new product or new launch, installation etc. It
identify the component activities – decides the sequencing
of the activity – analyze the time required to complete the
activity and improve upon the initial plan through
modifications. Control the project.
Modern Techniques
• Critical Path Method: CPM is like PERT but is
applicable for those project where the activity
time is well known.
• Management Audit: It is a comprehensive and
constructive review of the performance of
management team of any organization. It is an
aid for evaluation management performance.
Modern Techniques
Controlling – Making Effective
• Accuracy
• Timeliness
• Flexibility
• Acceptability
• Integration
• Economic Feasibility
• Corrective Actions
Thank you

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Controlling

  • 1. CONTROLLING Dattatreya Reddy Peram Assistant Professor, Dept. of MBA CBIT., Proddatur
  • 2. Controlling - Meaning • Controlling consists of verifying whether everything occurs in confirmities with the plans adopted, instructions issued and principles established. • Controlling ensures that there is effective and efficient utilization of organizational resources so as to achieve the planned goals. • Controlling measures the deviation of actual performance from the standard performance, discovers the causes of such deviations and helps in taking corrective actions
  • 3. Controlling - Definition • According to Brech, “Controlling is a systematic exercise which is called as a process of checking actual performance against the standards or plans with a view to ensure adequate progress and also recording such experience as is gained as a contribution to possible future needs.”
  • 4. Controlling - Definition • According to Donnell, “Just as a navigator continually takes reading to ensure whether he is relative to a planned action, so should a business manager continually take reading to assure himself that his enterprise is on right course.” • Controlling has got two basic purposes It facilitates co-ordination It helps in planning
  • 5. Features of Controlling • Controlling is an End Function • Controlling is Forward looking • Controlling is a dynamic process • Controlling is related with planning
  • 6. • Controlling is an end function- A function which comes once the performances are made in confirmities with plans. • Controlling is forward looking- because effective control is not possible without past being controlled. Controlling always look to future so that follow-up can be made whenever required. Features of Controlling
  • 7. • Controlling is a dynamic process- since controlling requires taking reviewal methods, changes have to be made wherever possible. • Controlling is related with planning- Planning and Controlling are two inseperable functions of management. Without planning, controlling is a meaningless exercise and without controlling, planning is useless. Planning presupposes controlling and controlling succeeds planning. Features of Controlling
  • 8. Controlling - Process • Establishment of standards • Measurement of performance • Comparison of actual and standard performance • Taking remedial actions
  • 9. • Establishment of standards- Standards are the plans or the targets which have to be achieved in the course of business function. They can also be called as the criterions for judging the performance. Standards generally are classified into two-Measurable or tangible - Those standards which can be measured and expressed are called as measurable standards. They can be in form of cost, output, expenditure, time, profit, etc. • Non-measurable or intangible- There are standards which cannot be measured monetarily. For example- performance of a manager, deviation of workers, their attitudes towards a concern. These are called as intangible standards. • Controlling becomes easy through establishment of these standards because controlling is exercised on the basis of these standards. Controlling - Process
  • 10. • Measurement of performance- The second major step in controlling is to measure the performance. Finding out deviations becomes easy through measuring the actual performance. Performance levels are sometimes easy to measure and sometimes difficult. Measurement of tangible standards is easy as it can be expressed in units, cost, money terms, etc. Quantitative measurement becomes difficult when performance of manager has to be measured. Performance of a manager cannot be measured in quantities. It can be measured only by- • Attitude of the workers, • Their morale to work, • The development in the attitudes regarding the physical environment, and • Their communication with the superiors. • It is also sometimes done through various reports like weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly reports. Controlling - Process
  • 11. • Comparison of actual and standard performance- Comparison of actual performance with the planned targets is very important. Deviation can be defined as the gap between actual performance and the planned targets. The manager has to find out two things here- extent of deviation and cause of deviation. Extent of deviation means that the manager has to find out whether the deviation is positive or negative or whether the actual performance is in conformity with the planned performance. The managers have to exercise control by exception. He has to find out those deviations which are critical and important for business. Minor deviations have to be ignored. Major deviations like replacement of machinery, appointment of workers, quality of raw material, rate of profits, etc. should be looked upon consciously. Therefore it is said, “ If a manager controls everything, he ends up controlling nothing.” For example, if stationery charges increase by a minor 5 to 10%, it can be called as a minor deviation. On the other hand, if monthly production decreases continuously, it is called as major deviation. Once the deviation is identified, a manager has to think about various cause which has led to deviation. The causes can be- • Erroneous planning, • Co-ordination loosens, • Implementation of plans is defective, and • Supervision and communication is ineffective, etc. Controlling - Process
  • 12. • Taking remedial actions- Once the causes and extent of deviations are known, the manager has to detect those errors and take remedial measures for it. There are two alternatives here-Taking corrective measures for deviations which have occurred; and • After taking the corrective measures, if the actual performance is not in conformity with plans, the manager can revise the targets. It is here the controlling process comes to an end. Follow up is an important step because it is only through taking corrective measures, a manager can exercise controlling Controlling - Process
  • 13. Controlling - Techniques • Traditional Techniques • Modern Techniques
  • 14. Traditional Techniques • Personal Observation • Statistical Data • Break Even Analysis • Budgetary Control
  • 15. Traditional Techniques • Personal Observation: This is oldest method of controlling. Manager get quick information about the employee and this in turn put the employee to focus more on the work rather to waste time. • Statistical Data: Statistical data may be used in the form of charts, tables and graphs. The presentation quality depends upon the accuracy of the data. Such reports are used for managerial control.
  • 16. • Break Even Analysis Helpful to evaluate the cost of production, volume of production, sales and revenue generated. Point where there is not profit no loss is known as break even point. BEP = Fixed Cost SP/U – VC/U • Budgetary Control It is the oldest technique of control. It provides the standard by which actual operations can be evaluated to know variations from the planned expenditures. Traditional Techniques
  • 17. Modern Techniques • Management Information System • Programme Evaluation Review Technique • Critical Path Method • Management Audit
  • 18. • Management information system : At every function organization has to take important decisions. Quality of decision is directly linked with the nature and quality of information provided. An effective information system is vital for efficient decision and management. • Programme Evaluation review Technique: PERT includes planning, monitoring and controlling of project. It is helpful in project management problems like – construction , promotion of new product or new launch, installation etc. It identify the component activities – decides the sequencing of the activity – analyze the time required to complete the activity and improve upon the initial plan through modifications. Control the project. Modern Techniques
  • 19. • Critical Path Method: CPM is like PERT but is applicable for those project where the activity time is well known. • Management Audit: It is a comprehensive and constructive review of the performance of management team of any organization. It is an aid for evaluation management performance. Modern Techniques
  • 20. Controlling – Making Effective • Accuracy • Timeliness • Flexibility • Acceptability • Integration • Economic Feasibility • Corrective Actions