We are conducting a global experiment. Civilizations 12,000 years old. Humanity depends on a stable climate. Climate shifts can happen abruptly and severly.
Modified from Information Kit: Assessing potential health effects involves many uncertainties. Researchers must consider not only future scenarios of climate change but many other variables as well. These include future environmental conditions, such as water purity, and trends in socio-economic conditions such as nutrition, immunization, population density, and access to health care. Nevertheless, despite these complexities researchers do have a high confidence in some of their findings. Climate change will cause direct health effects . . . Such as an increase in cardiovascular and respiratory illness and deaths due to rising temperatures. . . . . but indirect effects may be more important in the longer term. Such indirect effects include an increase in vector born diseases. Warmer temperatures would enable insects and other disease carriers to expand their range. It would also lead to an increase in respiratory illnesses due to higher levels of urban air pollution. Poorer communities will be more vulnerable than rich ones. However, richer countries will also be increasingly vulnerable as their populations age. Since this is such an important issue. We will now look at some of these health impacts in more detail.
Electricity a large contribution to Tufts Emissions
Electricity consumption leveled despite increase in students Water use down 20%
Reduce university greenhouse gas emissions consistent with the goals of the Kyoto Protocol (7% below 1990) and the New England Governors (10% reduction by 2020). CO 2 Reductions Research and Monitoring Education Outreach and Events Setting Priorities For Greening the University: Energy
<ul><li>Intro to Tufts and Tufts Climate Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Why should we care? Energy Costs / Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>IT's Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>IT at Tufts University </li></ul><ul><li>Current Issues & Policies: Security Versus Efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and Faculty Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Labs and Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Student Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Tele Centers and Tele Closets </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal of computers </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap up </li></ul>Presentation Overview
New Construction Renovations in Existing Buildings TCI Areas of Work
150 100 50 0 Thousands of Years ago Temperature change ( o C) Carbon dioxide (ppmv) Current temperature Climate Change and CO2 Concentration Current CO2 level: 380 ppmv Pre-industrial CO2 level: 280 ppm “ Business-as-usual” scenario CO2 level in 2100: 700 ppmv
Austria: Gepatsch-Ferner, 1904-2002 More than 95% of world’s glaciers are retreating. Polar sea ice has thinned by more than 40% in 30 years, and coastal ice shelves are disintegrating in Antarctica. Permafrost is warming and melting rapidly, destroying buildings and roads.
Hurricanes and Climate Change “ As the global climate changes, extreme weather events such as droughts, floods, heat waves, heavy rainfall, tropical storms and hurricanes are expected to increase.” (Dr. David Easterling, National Climatic Data Center, 9-26-00) <ul><li>Recent studies in Science and Nature have found hurricanes are growing fiercer. </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Trenberth “Uncertainty in Hurricanes and Global Warming” ( Science 2005 , 308 , 1753–1754 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Kerry Emanuel “Increasing Destructiveness of Tropical Cyclones Over the Past 30 Years” ( Nature 2005 , 10.1038/nature03906 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Webster et al, “Changes in Tropical Cyclone Number, Duration, and Intensity in a Warming Environment” ( Science 2005 , 309 , 1844–1846 ). </li></ul>Flooding of the Ohio river ( NOAA Photo Library; www.photolib.noaa.gov)
Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health Increase in vector-borne diseases Increase in heat-related deaths Increase in urban air pollution: increase in respiratory illnesses
Cumulative CO2 Emissions from 1800-1988: The Ecological Debt of the North Graph by Martin Storksdiek
With only 5% of the world population, we produce 25% of all greenhouse gases. We also: Increased our emissions by 14% since 1990. What has US done so far?
Paul: IT at Tufts Current issues & policies: Security versus Efficiency. Please insert your slides here.
4000 staff computers (30% flat screens): If on 24 hours, 365 days a year, no PM: 24 X 365 X 4000 (0.7 X 0.13 kW (regular desktop) + 0.3 X 0.08kW (desktop with flat screen) ) = 4,029,600 kWh X $0.14 per kWh = $564,000 and 2600 tons of CO2 350,000 trees to offset, Equivalent: 130 Americans, 80 Europeans, 970 Chinese 4000 staff computers, all flat screens, all with PM, all turned off when not in use. 250 X 4000 (6 hrs on X 0.13 kW + 2 hrs on with PM X 0.04) = 860,000 kWh X $0.14 per kWh = $120,000 and 560 tons of CO2 75,000 trees to offset Equivalent: 28 Americans, 56 Europeans, 207 Chinese Staff and Faculty Initiatives
Staff and Faculty Initiatives Brochures Flat Screens Power Management Office visits
Labs and Libraries Eaton and Mugar Labs: Power Management set 5 min for screens. Shut down at night. Tisch: not turned off because of staffing issues.
Student Initiatives: Background The average US student has 15 electric and electronic devices in his dorm room. At Tufts: About 3500 student owned computers. Estimated: 70% laptop, 30% desktops (recent change) Computers are on all the time (instant messaging!!!)
Student Initiatives : Tufts Climate Initiatives Eco-Representatives Program : Getting students involved in greening the campus Energy Pledge
Very popular! (Events that offer freebies, food, and a good slogan work!) Distribute CFB. Encourage shutting off electronic devices Hold slogan contest: e.g. “ burn fat not fuel” “less computer more fun” Student Initiatives: Yearly Energy Competition Among Dorms
Student Initiatives: Energy Hog animation Can be viewed at: http://www.tufts.edu/tie/tci/turn%20off%20you%20computer.swf Included in all set-up discs handed to incoming students.
Data Centers and Closets <ul><li>Data Center AC units: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control humidity and temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major contributors to electricity consumption and CO 2 emissions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electricity consumption, CO 2 emissions can be reduced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newer Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Center Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy changes </li></ul></ul>
Data Centers and Closets Glycol AC Units If the outside air is cold enough, the refrigeration cycle can be turned off. Essentially free cooling in the winter.
Data Centers and Closets “ Recirculation” (mixing of hot and cold air) results in a decrease in overall efficiency and cooling costs that are 10-25% higher. To prevent this, data racks should be aligned in rows with their fronts facing each other. Blanking Panels All unused space in the front of a rack should be covered with blanking panels to prevent mixing. The full implementation of the ‘hot isle-cold isle’ principle would reduce operating costs and the resulting carbon emissions by 20 percent. Estimated Reduction in Annual CO2 Emissions: 13.2 tons. Estimated Reduction in Annual Operating Cost: $2470 . ‘ Hot aisle – Cold aisle principle’
Data Closets / Tufts <ul><li>Do all Data Closets need AC? </li></ul><ul><li>Replacing ACs with a Fans: </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated Annual Reductions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.5 tons of CO 2 per data closet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$440 of operating cost per data closet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would require policy change: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who sets policy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is it enforced? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any other schools who have done this? </li></ul></ul>
Tufts Computer Disposal Total Tufts owned computers: 3600 Estimated replacement rate: 4 years Total: 900 computers replaced each year = 66,000 pounds Disposal Company: Onyx http://www.onyxes.com Computers with reuse value are donated to the City of Somerville.
Climate Change I Scientists agree that: By the end of the 21st century: Estimated temperature increase: 2.6-10.4 °F. Last Ice Age: only 5 - 9 °F colder than our current climate. In the next few decades the climate of Boston is predicted to become comparable to the one of either Richmond, VA, or Atlanta, GA.
Climate Change II Scientists agree that: Political action unlikely to keep temperature increases down. CO2 emissions need to be curbed by 45-60% to avoid catastrophic effects.
What Tufts has done <ul><li>Installed efficient lighting & motion sensors: $700,000, 2-5 year payback. </li></ul><ul><li>Steam traps: 400,000, 4 year pay back. </li></ul><ul><li>Invested in high efficiency motors and chillers. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased Energy star appliances. </li></ul><ul><li>New dorm will be a model in environmentally responsible design. </li></ul><ul><li>Switched to front-loading washing machines. </li></ul><ul><li>And much more! www.tufts.edu/tci </li></ul>