T&D Ppt

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T&D Ppt

  1. 1. Behaviourist Theories Group 2 Jaspreet Singh Nandre (20) Pooja Senapati (30) Surjya Das (55)
  2. 2. What is Behaviourism • Behaviours are acquired as a result of conditioning • Behaviour can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental state • Association or reinforcement – Primary pre requisites of Behaviourism • Only overt observable behaviours are studied and inner state of mind is not taken into account. • Behaviorism focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic.
  3. 3. Purpose of Behaviourism • Behaviors should be observed in a more objective manner • To promote desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable behaviors • To treat hordes of mental problems present in adults and children
  4. 4. What is Behaviorist Theory “Behaviorist theories of learning are scientific and demonstrable explanations for simple behaviors” -Lefrancois (1988)
  5. 5. Different Behaviorist Theories • Ivan Pavlov (Classical Conditioning) • Edward Thorndike • B.F. Skinner (Operant Conditioning) • John B. Watson
  6. 6. Classical Conditioning - Pavlov Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned response (food) (salivation) Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned response (food) (salivation) Conditioned Stimulus (bell) Conditioned Stimulus  Conditioned response (bell) (salivation) Response  Stimulus (press lever) (reward and food) TIME Conditioned response  Conditioned stimulus (press lever) (reward and food) Operant Conditioning - Skinner
  7. 7. Pavlov (1849-1936) • The Russian physiologist is best known for his work in classical conditioning or stimulus substitution. • Pavlov’s most famous experiment involved food, a dog and a bell.
  8. 8. Stimulus and Response Items of Pavlov's Experiment • Food Unconditioned Stimulus • Salivation Unconditioned Response • Bell Conditioned Stimulus • Salivation Conditioned Response
  9. 9. Other Observations Made by Pavlov Stimulus Generalization. Extinction.  Spontaneous Recovery. Discrimination. Higher-Order Conditioning.
  10. 10. Thorndike(1874-1949)  Thorndike believed that a neural bond would be established between the stimulus and response when the response was positive.  His theory, connectionism, stated that “learning was the formation of a connection between stimulus and response.”
  11. 11. Connectionism • The “law of effect”: When a connection between a stimulus and a response is positively or negatively rewarded it will be strengthened.
  12. 12. • The "law of exercise" : – The more an S-R(stimulus-response) bond is practiced the stronger it will become. – This law had to be updated when Thorndike found that practice without feedback does not necessarily enhance performance.

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