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  1. 1. Communication <ul><li>Efficient communication is ESSENTIAL to being successful in life. </li></ul><ul><li>The biggest source of inte </li></ul><ul><li>rpersonal problems is poor communications. </li></ul><ul><li>The key to the communication process is to be UNDERSTOOD. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Communication <ul><li>The aim of communication is the transference and understanding of information between two or more people. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication must always be between two or more people, one the sender and the other receiver. You participate in both roles and your role will change alternatively and frequently in conversation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Source Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver Message Message Message Message Feedback
  4. 4. The Communication Process Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver Message Message Message Message Feedback Source “ I take sugar in my tea”
  5. 5. The Communication Process Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver Message Message Message Message Feedback Source “ One lump or two?”
  6. 6. Communication Feedback <ul><li>We may say that communication has occurred only when the message has been understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding occurs in the mind of the receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is critical to ensure that accurate understanding of the message has occurred. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Barriers to Communication <ul><li>Barriers to accurate communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar language – including dialects and accents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper timing – Is the boss distracted today? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise and distractions in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude of both the source and the receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between people – gender, age, culture, education, intelligence, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between the sender and the receiver – status, boss-employee, parent-child, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Barriers to Communications <ul><ul><li>Filtering – manipulation of information so that it will seem more favorably to the receiver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Perception – receiver hears message based on his/her interests, needs, motivations, experience, background and other personal characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensiveness – response when receiver interprets message as threatening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language – Words mean different things to different people. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Communication Enhancers <ul><li>Speaker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice inflections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listener </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active listening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Communication <ul><li>Communication occurs in three directions in organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upward communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downward communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral communications </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. I Heard It on the Grapevine <ul><li>The grapevine is an informal communication network within an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Research reflects that about 75 % of the communication in the grapevine is accurate. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rumors <ul><li>Response to situations that are IMPORTANT to us, and </li></ul><ul><li>There is AMBIGUITY between what is going on and what was said, and </li></ul><ul><li>Under conditions that arouse ANXIETY , such as time off, pay programs, layoffs, etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rumors <ul><li>Rumors have no basis in accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Can management control rumors? NO ! Management, however, can do some things to minimize the rumors. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Consequences of Rumors <ul><li>Announce timetables for making important decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear inconsistent or secretive </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current decisions and future plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Openly discuss worst case possibilities – it is almost never as anxiety provoking as the unspoken fantasy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Communications – Did you know? <ul><li>People remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 percent of what they read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 percent of what they hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 percent of what they see </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 percent of what they see and hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80 percent of what they say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90 percent of what they say and do </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Communications – did you know? <ul><li>If you tell 100 people something without repetition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 24 hours, 25 percent have forgotten it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 48 hours, 50 percent have forgotten it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 72 hours, 75 percent have forgotten it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After one week, 96 percent have forgotten it </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Ten Commandments of Good Communication <ul><li>Seek to clarify your ideas before communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the true purpose of each communication </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the total physical and human setting </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with others in planning communications </li></ul><ul><li>Be mindful of the overtones as well as the basic content of your message </li></ul><ul><li>Take the opportunity to convey something of help or value to the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up your communication </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate for tomorrow as well as today </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure your actions support your communications </li></ul><ul><li>Seek not only to be understood but to understand - be a good listener </li></ul>
  18. 18. Summary <ul><li>Successful communication requires understanding by the receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>The communication process model includes a source, a message, encoding, a channel, decoding, a receiver, and, especially feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication in organizations occurs in upward, downward, and lateral directions. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>The key to the communication process is to have understanding on the part of the receiver. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many barriers to good communications that must be overcome for communications to be successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to be an active listener as part of successful communications. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Final thoughts <ul><li>Communicating to be understood and being a good listener are crucial. </li></ul><ul><li>Another important aspect of communication is to think about what you are saying before you say it. </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s communications set the tone for tomorrow’s relationships. </li></ul>