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Tapslides Lesson09

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Tapslides Lesson09

  1. 1. Internal Threats Chapter Nine Chapter 9 Slide 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>What are ‘internal threats’? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the internal threats that the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia faced? </li></ul><ul><li>How were these threats dangers to the people? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the ancient people deal with the threats? </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 2
  3. 3. What do you think has happened or is happening in the above photographs? How do you think the people feel? Chapter 9 Slide 3
  4. 4. What Are Internal Threats? They are possible dangers that come from within a kingdom or empire. Examples are floods, famine, rebellions, civil wars Chapter 9 Slide 4
  5. 5. Natural Disasters in India <ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeological evidence shows that Indus cities were rebuilt several times </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding of Indus River caused the Indus Valley Civilisation to decline </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding along Ganges River also caused serious damage, e.g. parts of Hastinapur damaged by overflowing of Ganges River c. 800 BCE </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 5
  6. 6. 2. Famines <ul><li>Famines, or a period of severe food shortage, were caused by droughts , a prolonged period with little or no rain </li></ul><ul><li>Floods wash away plants and crops  famines </li></ul><ul><li>Kings and temples expected to feed the starving </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 6
  7. 7. Warfare Between Indian Kingdoms <ul><li>It divided Indian society into those who spoke out against war, and those who accepted existence of warfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Many ancient Indians remained loyal to different kingdoms they came from, idea of a unified India did not exist </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient India frequently troubled by wars between rival kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>This had a two-fold effect: </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 7
  8. 8. Rebellions in India <ul><li>Rebellions against king led by those close to him </li></ul><ul><li>Kings sent spies to watch over princes in distant provinces </li></ul><ul><li>Princes had to leave families in capital cities </li></ul><ul><li>Still, kings were not very effective in curbing rebellions </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 8
  9. 9. Natural Disasters in China <ul><li>1. Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Most common and serious cases of flooding were along Yellow and Yangtze rivers </li></ul><ul><li>From 1000 CE, emperors built and maintained dykes using large numbers of people </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 9 Chinese peasants building a dyke
  10. 10. <ul><li>2. Famines </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred when population increased e.g. China’s population doubled during Ming dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Measures: emperors stocked granaries with rice, controlled prices, shipped rice to affected areas </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 10
  11. 11. Civil Wars <ul><li>During Eastern Zhou dynasty (771–221 BCE), shi fought among themselves for control of land </li></ul><ul><li>By 453 BCE, only seven states were left, fought in the Period of the Warring States (453–221 BCE) </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 11 The seven competing kingdoms during the Period of the Warring States
  12. 12. <ul><li>Civil war cause instability, hundreds of deaths </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the invention of iron weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Ended when Qin Shihuang, unified China in 221 BCE, abolished feudalism </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 12 An artist’s impression of soldiers fighting during the Period of the Warring States
  13. 13. Rebellion <ul><li>Occurred when peasants (farmers) were unhappy with the emperor, or felt that the emperor was losing his Mandate of Heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Example was Wang Mang (an usurper), killed by the Red Eyebrows (peasants) </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant rebellion </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 13
  14. 14. <ul><li>Military rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Occurred when an army, led by its leader, seeks to overthrow the ruler </li></ul><ul><li>An Lushan, a military commander, revolted against the Tang emperor, Xuanzong, in 755 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Declared himself emperor, but was deposed in 763 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Took Tang rulers many years to put provinces under its control again </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 14
  15. 15. <ul><li>1. Volcanic eruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Were devastating because </li></ul><ul><li>many villages were built </li></ul><ul><li>near active volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Mount Merapi erupted in 1006 CE, killed many and covered the Borobodur complex with ash </li></ul>Natural Disasters in Southeast Asia Chapter 9 Slide 15 People sweeping volcanic ash after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991
  16. 16. <ul><li>Occurred when transfer of authority from one ruler to another is not agreed upon  succession crisis </li></ul><ul><li>the several sons of a king claimed the right to succeed his throne </li></ul><ul><li>a man whose mother had nursed a prince challenged the prince’s succession </li></ul>Succession Disputes Chapter 9 Slide 16
  17. 17. <ul><li>Fall of Melaka to Portuguese in 1511 CE attributed partly to traders who helped Portuguese because they were unhappy with Sultan Mahmud: </li></ul><ul><li>He tried to force traders to hand over their ships to attack a pirate base </li></ul><ul><li>He made non-Muslims pay higher taxes </li></ul><ul><li>He refused to trade with the Portuguese, angering the Chinese and Tamil traders, who saw that it was profitable to trade with Portuguese </li></ul>Warfare and Rebellion Chapter 9 Slide 17
  18. 18. <ul><li>Traders would only trade with kingdoms that could guarantee their safety from pirates </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers employed orang lauts to keep watch over important trade routes </li></ul>Piracy Chapter 9 Slide 18
  19. 19. What are the internal threats faced by Singapore today? How can we respond to such threats? Think!! Chapter 9 Slide 19
  20. 20. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Internal threats are… </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the internal threats that the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia faced were… </li></ul><ul><li>These threats were dangers to the people because… </li></ul><ul><li>The ancient people dealt with these threats by… </li></ul>Chapter 9 Slide 20

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