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Religion And Philosophy


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Religion And Philosophy

  1. 1. Chapter Six Chapter 6 Slide 1 Religions and Philosophies
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>What are ‘religion’ and ‘philosophy’? </li></ul><ul><li>What were some of the religions and philosophies of the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia? </li></ul><ul><li>How did these beliefs affect how the ancient people lived and organised themselves? </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 2
  3. 3. Is what is happening in the photograph a familiar scene to you? What do you think is happening? Chapter 6 Slide 3
  4. 4. A religion is the belief in and worship of a god or gods. Chapter 6 Slide 4 What Is a Religion?
  5. 5. A philosophy is a way of thinking about life that guides a person’s actions and behaviour. Chapter 6 Slide 5 What Is a Philosophy?
  6. 6. Religion in India Hinduism and Buddhism Birth of Gautama Siddharta 566 BCE Chapter 6 Slide 6 BC E 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 CE1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 CE Beginnings of Hinduism Decline of Buddhism 6th century CE
  7. 7. Hinduism <ul><li>Origins are unknown </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu texts such as the Vedas and Bhagavad Gita suggest that: </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism is at least 3 000 years old and is the oldest religion in India. </li></ul><ul><li>2. It developed slowly over many centuries through a mixing of the beliefs of the Aryans and the Indus people. </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 7 Om, the symbol of Hinduism
  8. 8. Reincarnation and the Caste System Reincarnation is the rebirth of the human in a new body after death Chapter 6 Slide 8
  9. 9. Impact of Hinduism <ul><li>Affected almost every aspect of life — the belief in reincarnation explained the caste system, around which ancient Indian society was organised </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 83 per cent of the people in India are Hindus </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 9
  10. 10. Spread of Hinduism <ul><li>Spread to Southeast Asia between 200 and 1200 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers of mainland Southeast Asia built temples to worship Hindu gods. They also adopted idea of divine kingship. </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asians, however, did not adopt the caste system — cultural adaptation. </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 10
  11. 11. Buddhism <ul><li>Began over 2000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Developed from the teachings of Gautama Siddhartha </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 11 A statue of the Buddha
  12. 12. Gautama’s Enlightenment <ul><li>Saw scenes of illnesses, death, old age and asceticism </li></ul><ul><li>Left his palace to search for an answer to “Why is human life full of sorrow and pain?” </li></ul><ul><li>Realised the suffering was caused by craving, hatred and ignorance </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment — found the answers to his question </li></ul><ul><li>Now known as the Buddha, “The Enlightened One” </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 12 An illustration of Gautama Siddharta meditating under the Bodhi tree
  13. 13. The Four Noble Truths <ul><li>Life is full of suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings suffer sorrow and pain because they desire pleasure, wealth and fame </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings can stop their sorrow and pain if they stop wanting these things </li></ul><ul><li>The way to stop having these desires is to follow the Eightfold Path </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 13
  14. 14. The Eightfold Path ~ right understanding right thought right speech right action right livelihood right effort right mindfulness right meditation Chapter 6 Slide 14
  15. 15. Impact of Buddhism <ul><li>Influenced several Hindus, especially those from the lower castes to convert </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful kings converted too, helped to spread Buddhism throughout India and rest of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Example is Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty (269–232 BCE) </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 15 A painting of the Buddha’s first sermon at the Deer Park, found in Wat Chedi Liem
  16. 16. one of India’s greatest kings (269–232 BCE) Ashoka Mauryan king won a major battle at Kalinga - a turning point adopted Buddhism governed by ‘right conduct’, not violence carved edicts on rocks and pillars responsible for spreading Buddhism in India and to Ceylon, Burma and China Chapter 6 Slide 16
  17. 17. Philosophies in China Confucianism, Legalism and Taoism Chapter 6 Slide 17 Confucianism as state ideology BCE 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 CE1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 CE Confucius 551 – 479 BCE Zhuang Zi: Taoist thinker 4th century BCE Legalism as state ideology during Qin dynasty
  18. 18. Confucianism <ul><li>Founded by Confucius </li></ul><ul><li>Taught codes of conduct of living in peace and harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings – proper social behaviour, others before self and filial piety </li></ul><ul><li>“ Let the ruler be a rule, the minister be a minister, the father be a father, and the son be a son” </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings found in the Six Classics and Analects </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 18 An illustration of Confucius
  19. 19. Impact of Confucianism <ul><li>Made little impact initially </li></ul><ul><li>Banned during Qin dynasty (221–210 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings are still relevant today </li></ul><ul><li>Became state ideology during Han dynasty (202 BCE–220 CE) </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 19
  20. 20. Legalism <ul><li>Philosophy of good government rather one one that guides people in their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Duty of government to rule strictly; those who broke law must be punished severely </li></ul><ul><li>Later Chinese dynasties continued to use legalism, but removed severe punishments </li></ul><ul><li>Qin Shihuang (221–210 BCE) used it to strengthen his rule </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 20 A modern statue of Qin Shi Huang, located near the site of the Terracotta Army
  21. 21. Taoism <ul><li>Founder – not certain, many believe it to be Lao Zi </li></ul><ul><li>Teachings found in Dao De Jing </li></ul><ul><li>Main teaching - peace and harmony will prevail if people follow the Tao </li></ul><ul><li>Began as a philosophy but later developed into a religion </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with gods and goddesses from Chinese folktales </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 21 The symbol of Taoism, the Tao Ji
  22. 22. Religion in China <ul><li>Worshipped ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Believed in spirits </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted Buddhist and Taoist practices </li></ul><ul><li>While Buddhism was popular between 3rd and 8th centuries CE, it did not receive royal support </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 22
  23. 23. Religion in Southeast Asia Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam Chapter 6 Slide 23 Arrival of Buddhism 300 CE Arrival of Hinduism 1st century CE BCE 800 600 400 200 CE1 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 CE Arrival of Islam 11th century CE
  24. 24. Hinduism <ul><li>Brought by Indian traders </li></ul><ul><li>Arrived in 1st century CE </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted by kings and nobles who later built magnificent Hindu temple cities </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 24 The Cambodian flag includes a depiction of Angkor Wat, a magnificent Hindu temple
  25. 25. Buddhism <ul><li>Brought by Chinese, Indian traders and Buddhist missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Arrived c. 300 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Palembang was a centre for Buddhist learning </li></ul><ul><li>Remains an important religion today in Thailand, Laos, Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 25
  26. 26. The Borobodur complex in Java, Indonesia is an example of Buddhist monument that can be found in Southeast Asia. Chapter 6 Slide 26
  27. 27. Islam <ul><li>Arrived in the 11th century CE </li></ul><ul><li>Revealed by Allah to Prophet Muhammad in 570 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Messages from Allah were written down to become Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Brought by Muslim traders </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 27 A copy of the Qur’an
  28. 28. <ul><li>Allah is the only God, Prophet Muhammad is his messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Give alms </li></ul><ul><li>Fast during Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>Go on a pilgrimage </li></ul><ul><li>to Mecca </li></ul>The Five Pillars of Islam Chapter 6 Slide 28 Pilgrim offering supplications at Masjid Al-Haram, Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  29. 29. Role of Melaka in the Spread of Islam <ul><li>Conversion of local rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Royal marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Conquests </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 29 Map of Melaka and the neighbouring lands
  30. 30. Impact of Islam <ul><li>Many countries in the region today have large Muslim populations </li></ul><ul><li>Indonesia has the world’s largest Muslim population ~ 200 million </li></ul><ul><li>Rulers of island Southeast Asia converted to Islam but combined the teachings of Islam with those of their older beliefs — syncretism </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 30
  31. 31. REVIEW Which teachings do the following quotations come from? Chapter 6 Slide 31
  32. 32. “ The strength of a nation derives from the integrity of the home.” Chapter 6 Slide 32
  33. 33. “ Better than a thousand hollow words, Is one word that brings peace. ” Chapter 6 Slide 33
  34. 34. “ O God Beautiful, O God beautiful !! In the forest Thou art Green In the mountains Thou art High In the river Thou art Restless In the ocean Thou art Grave ” Chapter 6 Slide 34
  35. 35. “ Prayer carries us half way to God, fasting brings us to the door of His palace, and alms-giving procures us admission.” Chapter 6 Slide 35
  36. 36. If I have no physical body, if I have obtained the Way and become naturally so, I shall lightly lift myself and raise into the clouds. Coming and going between empty space, I become one in spirit with the Way. What trouble could I have? Chapter 6 Slide 36
  37. 37. But the wisdom of the people is useless: They have the minds of little infants! If an infant's head is not shaved, its sores will spread, and if its boil is not opened, it will become sicker. Yet while its head is being shaved and its boil opened, one person has to hold it tight so that Chapter 6 Slide 37
  38. 38. the caring mother can perform the operation, and it screams and wails without end. Infants and children don't understand that the small pain they have to suffer now will bring great benefit later. Chapter 6 Slide 38
  39. 39. <ul><li>Answers: </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Taoism </li></ul><ul><li>Legalism </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 39 REVIEW
  40. 40. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>‘ Religion’ and ‘philosophy’ are… </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the religions and philosophies of the people of ancient India, China and Southeast Asia were… </li></ul><ul><li>These beliefs affected how the ancient people lived and organised themselves in… </li></ul>Chapter 6 Slide 40