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  1. 1. Chapter Four Government Chapter 4 Slide 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>What is ‘government’? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the systems of government in ancient India, China and Southeast Asia? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the strengths and/or weaknesses of each system? </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 2
  3. 3. Chapter 4 Slide 3 The photograph above was taken in front of the Singapore Istana on 12 August 2004. Why do you think this was a special day in Singapore’s history?
  4. 4. What Is ‘Government’? <ul><li>Has two meanings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of people responsible for ruling a country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System of ruling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many different systems of ruling </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchy is the system of government headed by a king or a queen (monarch). </li></ul><ul><li>What, in your opinion, are the qualities of good government? </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 4
  5. 5. Government in India Chapter 4 Slide 5 Concentric circles model of government Border Zones: The king’s power overlapped with those of other kings. People had a choice of which king they wanted to be loyal to. Border Zones Outer Provinces : King’s power was weaker here. The governors had to share power with local kings, who still acknowledged that the king in the capital city was more powerful. Outer Provinces Inner Provinces: These areas were closest to the capital. In each province, a governor who reported directly to the king was in charge. Inner Provinces Capital City: King’s palace was located here. He was surrounded by nobles and ministers, or mantri . Capital city
  6. 6. <ul><li>In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded </li></ul><ul><li>the Indus region.The chaos and disorder </li></ul><ul><li>that resulted allowed Chandragupta </li></ul><ul><li>Maurya to overthrow the Magadha </li></ul><ul><li>dynasty, the most powerful kingdom then. </li></ul>The Mauryan Period (c. 322–185 BCE) Chapter 4 Slide 6 <ul><li>When Alexander left, Chandragupta </li></ul><ul><li>Maurya was able to expand his power </li></ul><ul><li>from Magadha into the Indus region </li></ul><ul><li>and form the Mauryan empire and dynasty (c. 322–185 BCE). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chapter 4 Slide 7
  8. 8. Chandragupta Maurya’s System of Government <ul><li>Highly organised with Pataliputra as </li></ul><ul><li>the capital city, but empire was </li></ul><ul><li>divided into provinces, each ruled by </li></ul><ul><li>trusted officials </li></ul><ul><li>Each city ruled by committees that </li></ul><ul><li>took charge of certain main areas, </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. public works or trade </li></ul><ul><li>All committees, however, ultimately </li></ul><ul><li>reported to Chandragupta Maurya </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 8
  9. 9. You Be the Judge!! Chapter 4 Slide 9 Maintained irrigation systems to ensure steady supply of water to fields Thieves and tax evaders had their ears or noses cut off Listened to people’s requests even while having his daily massage Set up a War Office and kept a large army to expand and control his empire Built roads for easy travel, e.g. the Great Royal Highway to connect Pataliputra to northwest of empire Set up centralised government, everyone had to report to him United most of the northern part of India Grade REPORT CARD NAME: Chandragupta Maurya
  10. 10. Government in China <ul><li>Feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>Practised by Shang (1523–1027 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>and Zhou (1027–771 BCE) rulers </li></ul><ul><li>A system in which some people were </li></ul><ul><li>given lands and limited ruling powers </li></ul><ul><li>by a ruler in return for their loyalty and support </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 10
  11. 11. Chapter 4 Slide 11 allowed shi to rule his lands allowed farmers to farm and protected them built roads, provided food and other services gave tribute farmer shi king
  12. 12. You Be the Judge!! <ul><li>How effective was feudalism? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What were the conditions necessary for it to work well? </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 12
  13. 13. Unitary System of Government <ul><li>Period of the Warring States saw </li></ul><ul><li>fighting between the different shi and </li></ul><ul><li>their army. </li></ul><ul><li>In 221 BCE, Qin Shihuang defeated the shi to unify China for the first </li></ul><ul><li>time </li></ul><ul><li>He abolished feudalism and set up a </li></ul><ul><li>centralised government — unitary </li></ul><ul><li>system of government </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 13
  14. 14. Qin Shihuang’s System of Government Chapter 4 Slide 14 Each managed by an inspector, a military governor and a civilian governor. All reported directly to the emperor. Provinces Capital city Emperor
  15. 15. You Be the Judge!! Chapter 4 Slide 15 Captured and buried alive scholars who opposed his rule Banned books that did not support his rule, mostly Confucian texts Forced people to work on the Great Wall of China, thousands died Enforced strict laws, criminals and their families were executed Introduced standardised script, currency, weight and measure Set up centralised government, abolished feudalism United most of the northern part of China Grade NAME: Qin Shihuang
  16. 16. Mandate of Heaven <ul><li>Belief that heaven was kind and wanted </li></ul><ul><li>people to be governed wisely and justly </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor - Son Of Heaven </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 16 The temple of Heaven was built during the Ming dynasty for the Emperor to offer sacrifice to Heaven.
  17. 17. <ul><li>Strong emperor  peace and good </li></ul><ul><li>harvest </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 17 <ul><li>Natural disasters lead to </li></ul><ul><li>poor harvests  weak emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disasters — signs from </li></ul><ul><li>heaven that the people had right to </li></ul><ul><li>revolt </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dynastic Cycle end of dynasty new dynasty Peak Peak Weak ruler Strong ruler Chapter 4 Slide 18 Power / stability / peace Time / successive emperors rise decline rise new dynasty Strong ruler decline end of dynasty Weak ruler
  19. 19. The Chinese Civil Service <ul><li>‘ Civil service’ refers to the government </li></ul><ul><li>departments and the people who work in them </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 19 <ul><li>Before Han Wudi (140–87 BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>became emperor, the civil service </li></ul><ul><li>was made up of members of rich </li></ul><ul><li>and powerful families </li></ul>
  20. 20. Chapter 4 Slide 20 <ul><li>Han Wudi introduced the Civil Service Examination system to attract the best talents (‘brains’) </li></ul><ul><li>124 BCE — Imperial University was set up to teach subjects for Civil Service Examinations, such as law and history </li></ul>Han Wudi and his royal aides
  21. 21. Government in Southeast Asia <ul><li>There was never </li></ul><ul><li>a single emperor </li></ul><ul><li>who ruled the </li></ul><ul><li>whole of </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Several kings </li></ul><ul><li>ruled over different sizes of kingdoms </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 21 A map of Southeast Asia
  22. 22. Divine Kingship <ul><li>Kings in mainland </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia saw </li></ul><ul><li>themselves as divine </li></ul><ul><li>rulers and the middlemen </li></ul><ul><li>between the gods and the </li></ul><ul><li>ordinary people. </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 22 <ul><li>In Khmer kingdom,the palaces </li></ul><ul><li>represented the home </li></ul><ul><li>of the gods and they became </li></ul><ul><li>temples after the king’s death. </li></ul>A sculpture of the Khmer king, Jayavarman VII
  23. 23. Cultural Adaptation <ul><li>Borrowing foreign practices that are </li></ul><ul><li>useful and rejecting those that are </li></ul><ul><li>not useful to suit one’s environment. </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 23 <ul><li>For example, kings in island Southeast </li></ul><ul><li>Asia, used Indian emblems of kingship </li></ul><ul><li>to represent their authority, e.g. the </li></ul><ul><li>sacred royal umbrella. However, the </li></ul><ul><li>kings did not see themselves as gods </li></ul><ul><li>after converting to Islam. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Parameswara <ul><li>Founded Melaka in 1403 </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged trade and made Melaka a </li></ul><ul><li>safe place for trader </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivated friendship with China </li></ul><ul><li>Converted to Islam, which attracted </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim traders from Arabia and India </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 24
  25. 25. The Melaka Sultanate Chapter 4 Slide 25 The model of the system of government in the Melaka Sultanate Vassal states These areas were independent but paid tribute to the sultan. They were ruled by the sultan’s relatives. Provinces These were ruled by governors appointed by the sultan. The provinces provided Melaka Sultanate with manpower, fish, rice and vegetables. Capital Ruled directly by the sultan, who was assisted by four ministers: chief minister, finance minister, chief of police and commander of the navy and army.
  26. 26. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>Government is … </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient India was ruled by … </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient China was ruled by… </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient Southeast Asia was ruled by… </li></ul><ul><li>3. The strengths and/or weaknesses of each system are… </li></ul>Chapter 4 Slide 26