Chapter 5 Impact Of External Events On Singapore

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Chapter 5 Impact Of External Events On Singapore

  1. 1. External Events and their Impact on Singapore
  2. 2. ENDURING UNDERSTANDING <ul><li>Is Singapore vulnerable to external events? </li></ul><ul><li>Name a few examples of external events that have affected Singapore in the past. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Developments in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>World War I </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Depression </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>During certain periods in history, innovations in technology grew at such a rapid pace that they have produced what have become known as industrial revolutions. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>The term INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformed Great Britain, between 1750 and 1830, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural population to Town based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture based to factory manufacture. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Other European nations underwent the same process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia and Japan in the the first half of the 20th century. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In some countries this transformation is only now taking place or still lies in the future. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE <ul><li>Increase in Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more European ships sailed to the East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in the number of ships visiting Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore became a port of call in the region </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. EFFECTS OF IR ON SINGAPORE <ul><li>Improvement in Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters - 4 to 5 months to reach Singapore from Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamships - 5 weeks in the 1860s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore brought into closer contact with Britain and the rest of the world </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL
  10. 10. OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL
  11. 11. OPENING OF THE SUEZ CANAL <ul><li>Artificial waterway from Port Said to Suez, linking the Mediterranean and Red Seas; 160 km long. </li></ul><ul><li>Separates Africa from Asia and provides the shortest eastwards sea route from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Opened in 1869, nationalized in 1956, blocked by Egypt during the Arab-Israeli War in 1967, and not reopened until 1975. </li></ul>
  12. 12. EFFECTS ON SINGAPORE <ul><li>Increase in Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings in distance and time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce shipping cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore traders found it faster and cheaper to get goods from Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased trade for Singapore as a result of increased speed and volume of ships </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. EFFECTS ON SINGAPORE <ul><li>Improvement in Port facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems at the Old Harbour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to cope with the large number of ships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Harbour - renamed Keppel Harbour in 1900 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New facilities were built </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DEVELOPMENTS IN ASIA <ul><li>Opening up of China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrepot trade with China and surrounding areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traders’ unfounded fears of opening up Chinese ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead, it increased Singapore’s trade </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. DEVELOPMENTS IN ASIA <ul><li>Development of Malaya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread of British control brought about peace and order in Malaya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invention of motor-car and tin-canning industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great demand for rubber and tin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore became the chief port for trade in tin and rubber </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. FIRST WORLD WAR <ul><li>Fought between the Allied Powers (Great Britain, France, Russia) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Turkey) </li></ul><ul><li>Ten million people died as a result of the war. </li></ul><ul><li>The War was mainly fought in Europe but still had an effect on Singapore. </li></ul>
  17. 17. WORLD WAR I <ul><li>Effects on Singapore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rush for food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade threatened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Mutiny </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. THE EMDEN <ul><li>The Emden was a German warship which attacked many ships in the Indian Ocean and SEA region. </li></ul><ul><li>It also raided ports such as Penang. </li></ul><ul><li>This posed a serious threat to the trade between Singapore and Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>It was finally located and sunk by HMAS Sydney. </li></ul><ul><li>www.worldwar1.co.uk/emden.html </li></ul>
  19. 19. PANIC BUYING <ul><li>There was a spate of panic food buying in Singapore when the war first broke out. </li></ul><ul><li>This led to an increase in food prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Government intervention saw the return to normalcy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Banned exports of large quantities of foodstuffs to other countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased imports of food. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. SEPOY MUTINY <ul><li>Some soldiers from the Sepoy regiment based in Singapore mutinied when they heard rumours that they would be sent to fight against the Turks. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutineers went around killing Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Not well supported and involved only part of the regiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Took ten days to put down the mutiny. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlighted the importance of maintaining internal security. </li></ul>
  21. 21. WHAT IS THIS STRUCTURE?
  22. 22. THE GREAT DEPRESSION <ul><li>The Great Depression took place from 1930 to 1939, starting with the US and spreading to the rest of the world </li></ul><ul><li>During this time the prices of stock in the US fell 40%. 9,000 banks went out of business and 9 million savings accounts were wiped out. </li></ul><ul><li>86,000 businesses failed, and wages were decreased by an average of 60%. The unemployment rate went from 9% all the way to 25%, about 15 million jobless people. </li></ul>
  23. 23. EFFECTS OF G.D. ON SINGAPORE <ul><li>Trade and Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>America and Europe were the biggest buyers of tin and rubber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses trading in these commodities were badly affected; many closed down </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. EFFECTS OF G.D. ON SINGAPORE <ul><li>Unemployment and Hardship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many people suffered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government had to retrench workers and many suffered pay cuts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1931, one third of the population was out of job </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. THE GREAT DEPRESSION <ul><li>Government’s Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passed a law in 1930 to restrict and reduce the number of immigrants coming to Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranged for large numbers of Indian and Chinese to return home </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Singapore is affected by external events </li></ul><ul><li>Countries are interdependent </li></ul>THE END

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