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Chapter 2 Founding Of Singapore


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Chapter 2 Founding Of Singapore

  2. 2. SOLVE THE MYSTERY Near the Singapore River, there live a pair of twins, one darker than the other. Who are they?
  3. 3. STATUES OF RAFFLES Who came first? s 80 18 69 19
  4. 4. RE-CAP During the previous lesson: History of Singapore prior to 1819. Why is 1819 such a significant year? Marks the beginning of modern Singapore. Availability of records.
  6. 6. THE COMING OF THE EUROPEAN POWERS The European powers began to arrive in Asia in search of spices and other goods such as silk and precious stones. Began with the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch and British.
  7. 7. THE EAST INDIA COMPANY Formed in 1601 with the specific objective of trading with Asia. Very different from most companies today. Own armies and navies. Ruled territories.
  8. 8. Rivalry between the Dutch and the British Dutch control of Malacca and Java meant that the British were at a disadvantage. Control of major ports: Forced to trade at Batavia High fees and taxes Not allowed to trade with locals. This form of control is also known as a trade monopoly. British had tried for many years to break the Dutch monopoly but were not successful.
  9. 9. SOURCE WORK “The Dutch possess the only routes through which ships must sail into the Malay Archipelago, the Straits of Sunda and Melaka and the British have now not an inch of ground to stand upon between India and China, nor a friendly port at which they obtain water and obtain refreshment” Textbook, page 24.
  10. 10. BRITISH SETTLEMENTS British founded 2 trade settlements: Bencoolen Penang Look at the map on page 22. Are the settlements in an ideal location?
  11. 11. CHOICE OF SINGAPORE Refer to the map on page 23. Why is Singapore a more suitable location than Penang and Bencoolen? Refer to the sources on page 24 for more details.
  12. 12. WHY ELSE WAS SINGAPORE CHOSEN? In your groups complete page 12-13 of your Activity Book.
  13. 13. VIDEO
  14. 14. FOUNDING OF SINGAPORE Raffles managed to persuade the Governor General of India, Hastings to allow him to start an expedition to look for a new settlement. Raffles landed in Singapore on 28 Jan 1819. Sought permission of the Temengong to start a trading settlement on the island. Raffles was asked to seek permission of the Sultan.
  15. 15. PROBLEMS Sultan was under the control of the Dutch and definitely would not have allowed the British to occupy Singapore. Raffles was able to exploit a succession dispute to his advantage. Refer to page 26 to 27 of textbook for more details.
  16. 16. THE TREATY OF 6 FEB 1819 Raffles recognised Tengku Hussein as Sultan. In return Sultan and Temengong allowed the British to start a trading settlement in return for an allowance.
  17. 17. THE REACTION Dutch protested. EIC board of directors and British government also unhappy. Nevertheless, there was no war: Shared a common threat – The French. Holland was financially weak.
  18. 18. RESOLUTION Negotiated a peace settlement known as the Anglo Dutch Treaty on 17 Mar 1824. Division into spheres of influence. Exchange of Melaka for Bencoolen. Singapore became a British colony.
  19. 19. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE What happened after the Treaty of 1819 was signed? Raffles returned to Bencoolen, leaving Farquhar in-charge of the new settlement. During this period, Singapore grew rapidly.
  20. 20. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE By 1820, Singapore’s trade expanded rapidly due to its location and the free trade policy. In the first 2 ½ years, 3,000 vessels came to Singapore and import and export trade totaled $8 million. Singapore also attracted many traders and settlers.
  21. 21. FARQUHAR’S ACTIONS Faced some constraints: Lack of funds: Singapore was a free port, it was hard to raise enough revenue. Instructed by Raffles to keep expenditure low. Lack of direction from Raffles and EIC: All decisions had to be made by Raffles in Bencoolen. Uncertainty surrounding Singapore’s future.
  22. 22. PROBLEMS IN EARLY SINGAPORE Despite the growth in trade, Singapore faced a number of problems. What were the problems that Farquhar faced? How did he overcome them? Refer to page 31 and 32 of the textbook.
  23. 23. OTHER PROBLEMS FACED BY FARQUHAR Singapore grew quickly under Farquhar’s directions. Raffles returned to Singapore in 1822, he disapproved of Farquhar’s actions. Disagreements over the legalisation of gambling, opium smoking and a ‘lax’ attitude to the trading of slaves.
  24. 24. JOHN CRAWFURD Raffles returned to Britain in 1823 and handed the Residency to John Crawfurd. Crawfurd was able to implement Raffles’ plans. Negotiated the ‘Treaty of Friendship and Alliance’ in Aug 1824. Sultan and Temengong ceded full control of Singapore to the EIC in return for compensation. After this treaty and the Anglo-Dutch treaty, Singapore was now under full British control.
  25. 25. THE PIONEERS Despite the uncertainty, many traders and settlers arrived from all over during this period. Came from different walks of life from rich traders to poor persons seeking their fortune. All contributed in their own way to the rapid development of Singapore during this period.
  26. 26. SUM UP Founding of Singapore arose as a result of the British attempt to break the Dutch monopoly and secure their trade route to China. Singapore proved to be in an advantageous location. Raffles’ actions led to a dispute between Britain and Holland. Dispute was only resolved as a result of the Anglo Dutch Treaty. Rapid Development of Singapore.
  27. 27. SO WHO FOUNDED SINGAPORE? Raffles? Farquhar? Crawfurd? The Pioneers? YOU DECIDE DURING THE NEXT LESSON!