Introduction to basic
manufacturing process with
clay and pop
Submitted by-
Darshika gupta
Ad sem III
PLASTER OF PARIS
- Can also be referred to as Gypsum
Plaster.
- Very similar to cement, plaster of paris is
easy to mold w...
PREPARATION OF POP
- Pop is made by heating crystalline gypsum
(120c – 160c).
- 2(CaSO4.2H2O)+heat=2CaSO4.1/2H2O+3H2O
- Th...
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Advantages
cost effective
Non allergic
Easily moulded to different forms.
Disadvantages
heavy...
USES
Mainly used for
decorative and medical
purposes.
CLAY
Clay is a special kind of earth which is made by
the decomposition of rocks through the action
of weathering.
- Chemi...
CLAY
- Clay common name for a number of fine-
grained, earthy materials that become
plastic when wet. Chemically, clays ar...
HISTORY OF CLAY
- The first evidence of the production of bricks
dates back to the day more than 5000
years ago. At first ...
HISTORY OF CLAY
-
- The terracotta brick continues to one of very
few products made exclusively of natural
materials: clay...
TYPES OF CLAY
Porcelain clay
- is one of the purer forms of clay.
- basically composed of kaolin.
- This type of clay vitr...
STONEWARE CLAY
- is a form of high firing clay containing kaolin as
well as, lower firing clays.
- It may also include iro...
EARTHENWARE
- These are low-firing clays .
- Earthenware clays normally contain a high
percentage of iron which acts as a ...
FIRECLAYS
-
- These are high-firing clays commonly used for
insulating bricks, hard firebrick and furniture.
- Some are pl...
BENTONITE
- Bentonite was formed in prehistoric time due to
volcanic eruptions (large % of silica). This is
found in Weste...
PROCESS
Glazing
- Glazes are the coating on pottery.
- They act to seal as well as give pottery it's
texture, color and br...
FIRING
- Firing clay transforms it from its humble, soft
beginnings into a new substance, ceramic.
Ceramics are tough, str...
THROWING
- Throwing is giving specific shape to the clay.
- Use water and press in the center of clay can be
transformed i...
ALTERING
- This technique is used by artist when the clay
is wet to give the desired shape.
- Various type of craving tool...
BISQUING
- It’s the method of Pre cooking stage for high
fired pottery.
- It burns the organics and the molecular water
ou...
BURNISHING
- Its mainly the process of smoothing or polishing
the clay body.
TEXTURES
- Textures on clay can be created by various
methods like stamping, pressing, beating etc
Nature textures
MANMADE TEXTURES
UTILITY OF CLAY
FUNCTIONAL PRODUCTS
DECORATIVE ITEMS
Thank you
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manufacturing process of clay and pop

  1. 1. Introduction to basic manufacturing process with clay and pop Submitted by- Darshika gupta Ad sem III
  2. 2. PLASTER OF PARIS - Can also be referred to as Gypsum Plaster. - Very similar to cement, plaster of paris is easy to mold when wet and forms a strong structure to the molded shape when dry. - Plaster of Paris is formed by heating Gypsum to 300 degrees Fahrenheit - Plaster of Paris got its name from a large gypsum deposit that is located in Paris.
  3. 3. PREPARATION OF POP - Pop is made by heating crystalline gypsum (120c – 160c). - 2(CaSO4.2H2O)+heat=2CaSO4.1/2H2O+3H2O - Than the pop is mixed in water and sets to hard cast to dry. - During this process heat is generated due to chemical reaction
  4. 4. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages cost effective Non allergic Easily moulded to different forms. Disadvantages heavy Easily breaks when comes in contact with water
  5. 5. USES Mainly used for decorative and medical purposes.
  6. 6. CLAY Clay is a special kind of earth which is made by the decomposition of rocks through the action of weathering. - Chemically it is a silicate with alumina, water, and sometimes some of the other common elements as well.
  7. 7. CLAY - Clay common name for a number of fine- grained, earthy materials that become plastic when wet. Chemically, clays are hydrous aluminum silicates, ordinarily containing impurities, e.g., potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or iron, in small amounts.
  8. 8. HISTORY OF CLAY - The first evidence of the production of bricks dates back to the day more than 5000 years ago. At first they were used in their unbaked form, simply left to dry in the sun and it was only in 2500 BC that they began to be baked. - Stone wasn’t always available and when it was, the crafting process was difficult and time consuming. Clay on the other hand, was perfectly easy to mix and mould and, once dry, was a valid support for early constructions.
  9. 9. HISTORY OF CLAY - - The terracotta brick continues to one of very few products made exclusively of natural materials: clay, sand, water and fire being the elements used in the creation process.
  10. 10. TYPES OF CLAY Porcelain clay - is one of the purer forms of clay. - basically composed of kaolin. - This type of clay vitrifies at higher temperature ranges from 2300 degrees F. - can withstand much higher firing temperatures without melting . - Porcelain clay when fired is very white.
  11. 11. STONEWARE CLAY - is a form of high firing clay containing kaolin as well as, lower firing clays. - It may also include iron, which results in it's off white to reddish appearance before and after firing. - This clay can also be formulated to withstand temperatures equal to porcelain.
  12. 12. EARTHENWARE - These are low-firing clays . - Earthenware clays normally contain a high percentage of iron which acts as a flux when fired quite fragile and porous 5 to 15%. - Earthenware cannot be made vitreous because of various fluxes. - Earthenware deforms, blisters or bloats when fired above 2100o F.
  13. 13. FIRECLAYS - - These are high-firing clays commonly used for insulating bricks, hard firebrick and furniture. - Some are plastic, some aren't. Generally, they contain iron & calcium . - They are found almost anywhere and can be high in Alumina and/or silica.
  14. 14. BENTONITE - Bentonite was formed in prehistoric time due to volcanic eruptions (large % of silica). This is found in Western mountain states.
  15. 15. PROCESS Glazing - Glazes are the coating on pottery. - They act to seal as well as give pottery it's texture, color and brilliance. - Glazes can be purchased . - Before deciding which glaze to use you must first consider a few variables: 1. The Clay body of the particular piece. a. The firing temperature of the clay body. b. Clay body type: Some clay bodies for example, already have strong iron contents, this factor will directly affect the finished glaze color.
  16. 16. FIRING - Firing clay transforms it from its humble, soft beginnings into a new substance, ceramic. Ceramics are tough, strong, and very similar in some ways to stone. - Firing is the process of bringing clay and glazes up to a high temperature. The final aim is to heat the object to the point that the clay and glazes are “mature” – that is, that they have reached their optimal level of melting.
  17. 17. THROWING - Throwing is giving specific shape to the clay. - Use water and press in the center of clay can be transformed into any shape.
  18. 18. ALTERING - This technique is used by artist when the clay is wet to give the desired shape. - Various type of craving tools are used in thids proccess.
  19. 19. BISQUING - It’s the method of Pre cooking stage for high fired pottery. - It burns the organics and the molecular water out of the clay.
  20. 20. BURNISHING - Its mainly the process of smoothing or polishing the clay body.
  21. 21. TEXTURES - Textures on clay can be created by various methods like stamping, pressing, beating etc Nature textures
  22. 22. MANMADE TEXTURES
  23. 23. UTILITY OF CLAY FUNCTIONAL PRODUCTS
  24. 24. DECORATIVE ITEMS
  25. 25. Thank you

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