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intelligent street light system using gsm Report

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intelligent street light system using gsm Report

  1. 1. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION GSM based street light monitoring & control system is an automated system designed to increase the efficiency and accuracy of an industry by automatically timed controlled switching of street lights. GSM based street light monitoring & control system consists of an 89C51 microcontroller which on setting of time delays switches ON/OFF the street lights and sends the update through a phone to the specified phone number. This is smart way of managing street lighting systems. There are basically two modules which include the client side and the server side. The client side consists of the GSM modem which is further connected to the microcontroller. The server side consists of the JAVA based web server it has a core engine which interacts with the user, database and the GSM communication manager. 1.1 Overview Due to the increase of environmental concerns, lighting control systems will play an important role in the reduction of energy consumption of the lighting without impeding comfort goals. As mentioned the energy is the single most important parameter to consider when assessing the impacts of technical systems on the environment. Energy related emissions are responsible for approximately 80% of air emissions and central to the most serious global environmental impacts and hazards, including climate change, acid deposition, smog and particulates. Lighting is often the largest electrical load in offices, but the cost of lighting energy consumption is low when compared to the personnel costs. Thus its energy saving potential is often neglected. According to study global grid based electricity consumption for lighting was about 2650 TW in 2005, which was an equivalent of 19% of total global electricity consumption. European office buildings dedicate about 50% of their electricity for lighting, whereas the share of electricity for lighting is around 20-30% in hospitals, 15% in factories, 10-15% in schools and 10% in residential buildings..Intelligent lighting control and energy
  2. 2. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 2 management system is a perfect solution for energy saving, especially in public lighting management. It realizes remote on/off and dimming of lights, which can save energy by 40%, save lights maintenance costs by 50%, and prolong lamp life by 25%. The system application in streetlight control for each lamp will reduce in streetlight electricity and maintenance cost, and increase availability of street light. 1.2 Unique Characteristic  Detecting failures of any node.  Tolerance to communication network.  Dynamic network topology. Each node in the network is linked to the main server via a protocol. The analog data sensed by the sensor is converted in digital form, processed by microcontroller and then sent to the server. The master controls all the slaves .The other nodes sends the data to master and the master collects the data and further sends to concentrator and server where the data is monitored and on necessary alterations process it to switch On/Off the nodes devices. This scenario increases life of streetlights, reduces power consumption, ease of monitoring and controlling and less installation cost are the various advantages achieved. 1.3 Methodology Firstly, Chips would be made to be installed on the lights. These chips will consist of a micro-controller along with various sensors like CO2 sensor, fog sensor, light intensity sensor, noise sensor and GSM modules for wireless data transmission and reception between concentrator and PC. The data from the chips would be received on a remote concentrator (PC) and the PC would also transmit the controlling action to the chip. According to the survey of variation in the intensity of light in the field area, efficient programming would be done to ensure minimum consumption of energy. The emissions in the atmospheres would be detected along with the consumption of energy and any theft of electricity.
  3. 3. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 3 Chapter 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 Survey Papers A Street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or walkway, which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night. Major advantages of street lighting includes: prevention of accidents and increase in safety. Studies have shown that darkness results in a large number of crashes and fatalities, especially those involving pedestrians; pedestrian fatalities are 3 to 6.75 times more likely in the dark than in daylight. Street lighting has been found to reduce pedestrian crashes by approximately 50%.A number of street light control systems have been developed to control and reduce energy consumption of a town's public lighting system. These range from controlling a circuit of street lights and/or individual lights with specific ballasts and network operating protocols.These may include sending and receiving instructions via separate data networks, at high frequency over the top of the low voltage supply or wireless. Various protocols have been developed as well as compatible hardware for most types of lighting. The control center will deal with the data so that it can know the situation of each streetlight. GSM based street light monitoring & control system is an automated system designed to increase the efficiency and accuracy of an industry by automatically timed controlled switching of street lights. GSM based street light monitoring & control system consists of an 89C51 microcontroller which on setting of time delays switches ON/OFF the street lights and sends the update through a phone to the specified phone number.There are basically two modules which include the client side and the server side. The client side consists of the GSM modem which is further connected to the microcontroller. The server side consists of the JAVA based web server; it has a core engine which interacts with the user, database and the GSM communication manager[1]. Street light, a raised source of light that is commonly used along walkways and streets when the surrounding turns dark. Currently, various street lighting control systems technology have been developed to control and maintain these systems more economically.
  4. 4. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 4 However, most of these systems developed have contributed some drawbacks. They have been considered to be outdated due to lack of communication capabilities, not allowing a system feedback. Hence, Zigbee communication technology is deployed so as to ensure a higher efficiency and overcome current drawbacks. The system will be able to detect fault and apprise the control room about it. Zigbee -enabled street light is based on the wireless sensor network application that utilizes Zigbee communication protocol to enhance the technology of street lighting system by providing communication capabilities. Zigbee – enabled street light are mostly battery powered, hence there is no need of laying underground cable connection. As the surrounding gets darker, the resistance of the LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) increases, the voltage yielded will be high and a large ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) value will be obtained. The ADC value can be as low as 0 for very bright environment and as far as 1023 for a dark environment. The ADC value obtained is directly proportional to the voltage divider value of both the LDR and the potentiometer in series with each other. A slightest change in the resistance of the LDR can give a difference to the ADC value. The microcontroller used in the system is of 10-bit, hence produces as much as 210 = 1023 values[2]. Street Light Control System which operates automatically is not only easiest but also the intelligent system. This system can be set to operate in automatic mode, which regulates the streetlight according to brightness and dimness Algorithm and light intensity.
  5. 5. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 5 Table 2.1: COMPARITION OF TECHNIQUES IN PAPERS street light system also includes a time cut-out function, and an automatic control pattern for even more electricity conserving, when vehicles pass by, the light will turn on automatically, later turn off. Furthermore, this system has auto-alarm function which will set off if any light is damaged and will show the serial number of the damaged light, thus it is easy to be found and repair the damaged light. In addition, the system integrates a digital temperature and humidity sensor, not only monitoring the streetlight but also temperature and humidity The core of the system is constructed based on the Microchip’s PIC18F microcontroller [3]. It aims at designing and executing the advanced development in embedded systems for energy saving of street lights. Nowadays, human has become too busy, and is unable to
  6. 6. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 6 find time even to switch the lights wherever not necessary.The present system is like, the street lights will be switched on in the evening before the sun sets and they are switched off the next day morning after there is sufficient light on the roads. this paper gives the best solution for electrical power wastage. Also the manual operation of the lighting system is completely eliminated.In this paper the two sensors are used which are Light Dependent Resistor LDR sensor to indicate a day/night time and the photoelectric sensors to detect the movement on the street. The microcontroller PIC16F877A is used as brain to control the street light system, where the programming language used for developing the software to the microcontroller is C-language. Finally, the system has been successfully designed and implemented as prototype system. It elaborates the design and construction of automatic street control system circuit. Circuit works properly to turn street lamp ON/OFF .After designing the circuit which controls the light of the street as illustrated in the previous sections. LDR sensor and the photoelectric sensors are the two main conditions in working the circuit. If the two conditions have been satisfied the circuit will do the desired work according to specific program. Each sensor controls the turning ON or OFF the lighting column.The street lights have been successfully controlled by microcontroller with commands from the controller the lights will be ON in the places of the movement when it's dark. Furthermore the drawback of the street light system using timer controller has been overcome, where the system depends on photoelectric sensor. Finally this control circuit can be used in long roadways between the cities [4].
  7. 7. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 7 Chapter 3 TECHNOLOGY Fig 3.1: Block Diagram of The Complete Smart Street Lamp Monitoring System. The above simplified block diagram shows the complete smart street lamp monitoring system. Inside the lamp module, it consists of light dependent resistors (LDR) module, microcontroller module and transmission module. The lamp module will communicate with the control centre through wireless using Xbee. In the LDR module, it consists of two LDR. One of the LDR is install on top of the street lamp for the checking the day/night status condition. Another LDR is place under the street lamp to monitor and checking the lamp health status. The results of the LDRs send to microcontroller, where the microcontroller will process the data and send the data to the transmission module. In the transmission module, there is wireless Xbee that transmit the data through wireless to the control centre. In the control centre, it will monitors each of the street lamp status, as well as controlling the operation of the street lamps.
  8. 8. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 8 3.1 WSN For Intelligent Street Lighting System Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network which typically equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery. A sensor network normally constitutes a wireless ad-hoc network, meaning that each sensor supports a multi-hop routing algorithm (several nodes may forward data packets to the base station). Types of Sensor Nodes 1. LDR [Light Dependent Resistors] sensor 2. CO2 gas sensor 3. Sound sensor 1. LDR [Light Dependent Resistors] sensor: LDRs or Light Dependent Resistors are very useful especially in light/dark sensor circuits. Normally the resistance of an LDR is very high, sometimes as high as 1000 000 ohms, but when they are illuminated with light resistance drops dramatically. When the light level is low the resistance of the LDR is high. Fig 3.2 :Light Dependent Resistor
  9. 9. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 9 2. CO2 gas sensor: The CO2 Gas Sensor Module is designed to allow a microcontroller to determine when a preset Carbon Dioxide gas level has been reached or exceeded. Interfacing with this sensor is done through a 4-pin SIP header and requires two I/O pins from the host microcontroller. The sensor module is intended to provide a means of comparing gas sources and being able to set an alarm limit when the source becomes excessive. Fig 3.3 :Co2 Sensor Mg811 3. Sound sensor: The Sound sensor module is a simple microphone. Based on the power amplifier LM386 and the electronic microphone, it can be used to detect the sound strength of the environment. The value of output can be adjusted by the potentiometer. . Fig3.4 :Model: Sen12 sound sensor
  10. 10. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 10 GSM SIM300 module for wireless communication The SIM300 is a all in one GSM/GPRS solution that comes in a compact plug-in module. With an industry-standard interface, the sim300 offers GSM/GPRS 900/1800/1900MHz performance for voice, SMS, data, and Fax all in a small sized module that is perfect for integration in any handheld device. This module can be easily interfaced with it AT commands over TTL serial interface, which makes it easy to connect it to microcontrollers, computers, and other devices. Fig 3.5: GSM module Fig 3.6 : Block Diagram Transmission Side
  11. 11. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 11 Fig 3.7: Block Diagram Reception Side Implementation Details  User Sets all the required parameters for a particular Sensors on a Street Light Modules for different Areas on the Server.  All the information is sent to the Street Light Modules using the GSM / GPRS Module.  Microcontroller then controls the street light based on the Sensor parameters and performs the required action received from the server using GSM / GPRS MODULE.  The control center will monitor and control all streetlight real times. It compares these values with the threshold value and appropriately decides whether to vary intensity of light.  The GUI gives us a representation of the streetlights i.e. their status (ON/OFF).  Street Light Module can operate in Manual or Automatic Mode as configured from the server by the user.
  12. 12. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 12  Street Light Module also measures the amount of visibility and Carbon Dioxide present in the environment using the respective FOG and Gas Sensor and controls the Fog Lights if Necessary. All This information is sent to the server on request. It takes account of environment and safety standards needed in all traffic conditions.  Firstly, microchip would be required to be installed on the pole lights. These chips will consist of a micro-controller along with various sensors like CO2 sensor, fog sensor, light intensity sensor, noise sensor and GSM modules for wireless data transmission and reception between concentrator and PC.  The data from the chips would be received on a remote concentrator (PC) and the PC would also transmit the controlling action to the chip.  Separate automatic mode will be provided that will have timing considerations in addition to surrounding light conditions. Features: 1. Multicolor LED 2. Light sensor 3. Fog Sensor 4. Carbon emission sensor 5. Noise Sensor 3.2 Modes of Operation:  Auto mode  Manual mode Auto mode In auto mode, according to the light intensity, slot of times and also monitoring the weather conditions the nodes are being switched on/off .It monitors the complete locality and thus saving power. Manual mode In Manual mode, system stores the parameters in computer about changes in environmental conditions continuously like heavy rain visibility, faults ,more or less traffic congestion or during foggy conditions. User can manually define each node with specific intensity factor as per the requirement and can take any suitable corrective measure.
  13. 13. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 13 BULB USED: Mostly sodium vapor bulb of 250W or 150W. 250W is used for main roads. 150W is used for internal roads. TYPES OF BULB: 1. Sodium-yellow color- Steady nature 2. Mercury-white color- Not used usually 3. Metal halide-white color- Power consumption is quite high, hence not normally used. Height of Street Light: 7m, 8m, 9m, 10m Power: 70 Watts for 7m & 8m poles 150Watts for 9m pole 250 Watts for 10m pole Distance between successive street lights: 19-20m (between 7-7m and 8-8m poles) 24-25m (between 9-9m and 10-10m poles) (Distance between poles depends on width of the roads.) Phase : Single phase (230V) and Three Phase (440) Used together Lamps : Sodium Vapor Lamps Network : Arranged in parallel network Linear control : No linear control available on lamps
  14. 14. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 14 Chapter 4 REAL TIME CASE STUDIES 4.1 Application  Remote on/off, Dimming and on-site Status Check.  System Fault Detection/Alarm.  Anti-theft Detection/Alarm.  Date Management (energy consumption report).  24-hours online Monitoring.  Reduce energy use by up to 40%.  Reduce maintenance by up to 50%.  Increase bulb life by up to 25%. 4.2 Advantages  prevention of accidents and increase in safety.  Enables reliable communication.  No short circuit problem.  LEDs - reduce CO2 emissions and increases power efficiency.  Linear power supply – during rainy season 4.3 Companies working on similar technology IoTcommTechnologies, China IoTcomm Technologies develops communication technologies for the Internet of Things (IoT), including but not limited to Power Line Communication (PLC), GPRS, Zigbee and WIFI. By integrating PLC and wireless communication technologies seamlessly, Dotcom has developed an intelligent street lighting control and management system, which provides its customers with the least expensive and the most reliable solution to significantly reduce power consumption, operating costs and environmental impacts. IoTcomm also offers power line communication modules and wireless communication modules, which are readily to be integrated into smart automation systems including
  15. 15. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 15 lighting, heating and cooling, security, fire detection, access control, or energy monitoring equipment for both commercial and residential buildings. Echelon International,USA Echelon’s Smart Street Lighting Solution transforms streetlights into intelligent, energy efficient, remotely managed networks that deliver dependable lighting at 30% less cost than low-energy luminaries alone. Over the long term, Smart Street Lighting serves as a foundation for building a Smart City. Nearly 500 cities have started and know the value of it is field-proven and reliable smart street lighting solution. It has proven track record to provide safer, more affordable lighting that reduces carbon footprint. Instruments Universal, India Instruments Universal, an Industrial Automation & System Integration major in Gujarat, was established in 1980 in Vadodara. With a strong foundation of technical expertise and 30-year experience in Effluent Sampling Automation, it has emerged as one of the leading torchbearers in the Automation Industry. The company specializes in MCS51 series, ST7 series of microcontrollers, assembly languages, visual basic, Java, effective 32 bit ARM processor operations and PIC microchip controllers. The company is serving in the field of street light automation, street light monitoring and controlling and street light management since 2000. 4.4 Modules of Application 4.4.1 Setting of network parameter Setting of network parameter The module accepts network setup and connection establishment parameters such as baud rate, parity, stop bits, no. of data bits and COM port no. for serial communication. On successful establishment of connection it gives timing details and address of device. 4.4.2 Receiving node list from the network After providing the Network parameters to the System the system sets up the Network. If new nodes are added to the network then, the system takes a small period of time to detect new nodes and add them to the network. The nodes broadcast its “HELLO”
  16. 16. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 16 message which is subsequently received by the Master Node. The node detection is verified by the “List Receive Message”. 4.4.3 Viewing the Node List of the nodes present in the Network After the complete setup of the network the Nodes present in the network are presented to the administrator. The Nodes are represented by their node number, their current status and also the number of nodes present in the Network. 4.4.4 Set status of a particular node Administrator can Select a particular node and update its status i.e. ON/OFF. The administrator provides the necessary command to set the Node ON and OFF. A value 1 is entered as a command by the Administrator to turn the Street node ON and value 0 is entered as a command to turn the Street node OFF. 4.4.5 Set status of a particular node is switched ON/OFF After the Set status value provided by the Administrator to the selected node, its status is updates as ON/OFF. A Bulb showing a YELLOW color glow is used to indicate that the Node is turned ON.A Bulb showing a WHITE color glow is used to indicate that the Node is turned OFF. 4.4.6 Get status of a particular node The Administrator has the control over the function to view the current status of any particular node in the Network. The Command that does this function is known as GET STATUS. This Command returns the current status of the node An YELLOW colored indicates an ON status. A WHITE colored indicates an OFF status. 4.4.7 Refresh Network for Detecting and adding new nodes to the Network The refresh network command provides the Administrator the functionality to check for new nodes wanting to join the Network. This command does the same functionality as the Network setup operation. The Nodes are represented by their node number, their current status and also the number of nodes present in the Network. Already existing Nodes in the network also are detected once again in the Network Refresh operation.
  17. 17. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 17 Chapter 5 CONCLUSION  In this paper Intelligent street lighting system is described that integrates new technologies offering ease of maintenance and energy savings.  The proposed system is appropriate for street lighting in remote as well as urban areas where traffic is low at times.  Along with energy saving it also tackles with the problem of power theft .It is capable of taking corrective actions in case of unprecedented events of climatic changes.
  18. 18. Intelligent Street Lighting System Using GSM 2014-15 Dept. of CSE, MIT Mysore 18 REFERENCES [1] Omkar Natu et.al / International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering (IJCSE) “GSM Based Smart Street Light Monitoring and Control System” Vol. 5 No. 03 Mar 2013. [2] Nuraishah Sarimin, Shereen Lina d/o Isaac2, Najmiah Radiah Mohamad “Zigbee based Smart Street Lighting System” International Journal of Computer Trends and Technology- volume4Issue4- 2013. [3] Mustafa Saad, Abdalhalim Farij, Ahamed Salah and Abdalroof Abdaljalil “Automatic Street Light Control System Using Microcontroller”. [4] K.Santha Sheela , S.Padmadevi “Survey on Street Lighting System Based On Vehicle Movements” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 3, Issue 2, February 2014. [5] B. K. Subramanyam, K. Bhaskar Reddy, P. Ajay Kumar Reddy “ Design and Development of Intelligent Wireless Street Light Control and Monitoring System Along With GUI “International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications , Vol. 3, Issue 4, Jul-Aug 2013. [6] Deepak Kapgate “ Wireless Streetlight Control System “International Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 41– No.2, March 2012.

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