Definition: A company’s first equity issue made available to the public. This issue occurs when a privately held company decides to go public Also called an “unseasoned new issue.” An "initial public offering" is a companys first sale of stock to the public. This is why it is also referred to as "going public". When a company that has already issued stock issues more stock it is called a "secondary offering".
New capital ◦ Almost all companies go public primarily because they need money to expand the business Future capital ◦ Once public, firms have greater and easier access to capital in the future Mergers and acquisitions ◦ Its easier for other companies to notice and evaluate a public firm for potential synergies ◦ IPOs are often used to finance acquisitions
Governing Laws – Before 1992, Public issues were governed by Chief Controller of Capital Issues (CCCI). In 1992, CCCI has been abolished and SEBI has been formed.Dutch East India company was the 1st company in the world to issue stock and bonds IPO Now IPO is governed by Followings:1. The Companies Act 19562. SEBI (Disclosure & Investor Protection) Guidelines, 20003. Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 19564. Listing norms/Guidelines of NSE/BSE
REASONS FOR LISTING When a company lists its securities on a public exchange, the money paid by investors for the newly issued shares goes directly to the company An IPO, therefore, allows a company to tap a wide pool of investors to provide itself with capital for future growth, repayment of debt and working capital. A company selling common shares is never required to repay the capital to investors. Once a company is listed, it is able to issue additional common shares via a secondary offering. This ability to quickly raise large amounts of capital from the market is a key reason many companies seek to go public.
Diversifying equity base Enabling access to capital Exposure, prestige and public image Attracting and retaining better management and employees through liquid equity participation Facilitating acquisitions Creating multiple financing opportunities: equity, convertible debt, cheaper bank loans, etc.
Significant legal, accounting and marketing costs Disclosure of financial and business information Meaningful time, effort and attention of management Risk related to funding Regulations Dilution of control
Select an underwriterRegister IPO with SEC Print prospectus Present road show Price the securities Sell the securities
PRICINGGlobally IPO have been underpriced. Generate additional interest. Significant gains.Overpricing of IPO. Underwriters may have trouble in making commitments. If stock falls, it lose its marketability“LOW ENOUGH TO STIMULATE INTEREST IN THESTOCK, BUT HIGH ENOUGH TO RAISE AN ADEQUATEAMOUNT OF CAPITAL FOR THE COMPANY”.
theglobe.com IPO 1990’s Internet eraBear Stearns- underwriter $9 $63 Raised upto $97TOTAL AMOUNT RAISED $30 MILLIONS
Agricultural Bank of China US$22.1 billion (2010) Industrial and Commercial Bank of China US$21.9 billion (2006) American International Assurance US$20.5 billion (2010) Visa Inc. US$19.7 billion (2008) General Motors US$18.15 billion (2010) Facebook, Inc. US$16 billion (2012)
US last topped the IPO league tables in 2008 overtook with China raising $73 billion almost double the amount of money raised on the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq combined up to the end of November 2011.
SEBI GUIDELINES FOR IPO IPOs of small companiesPublic issue of less than five crores has to be throughOTCEI and separate guidelines apply for floating Size of the Public IssueIssue of shares to general public cannot be less than 25of the total issue, incase of information technology,media and telecommunication sectors this stipulation isreduced subject to the conditions that:Offer to the public is not less than 10% of the securitiesissued.A minimum number of 20 lakh securities is offered tothe public andSize of the net offer to the public is not less than Rs. 30crores.
Promoter ContributionPromoters should bring in their contribution includingpremium fully before the issueMinimum Promoters contribution is 20-25% of the publicissue.Minimum Lock in period for promoters contribution is fiveyearsMinimum lock in period for firm allotments is three years. Collection centers for receiving applicationsThere should be at least 30 mandatory collection centers,which should include invariably the places where stockexchanges have been established.For issues not exceeding Rs.10 crores (including premium, ifany), the collection centres shall be situated at:-the four metropolitan centres viz. Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta,Madras; andat all such centres where stock exchanges are located in theregion
Regarding allotment of shares Net Offer to the General Public has to be at least 25% of the Total Issue Size for listing on a Stock exchange. It is mandatory for a company to get its shares listed at the regional stock exchange where the registered office of the issuer is located. Minimum of 50% of the Net offer to the Public has to be reserved for Investors applying for less than 1000 shares. Indian development financial institutions and Mutual Fund can be allotted securities upto 75% of the Issue Amount. Allotment to categories of FIIs and NRIs is upto a maximum of 24%, which can be further extended to 30% by an application to the RBI - supported by a resolution passed in the General Meeting.
IPO GRADINGGraded from at least one CRARegistered with SEBI like -CRISIL -FITCH -ICRA -CARE
TIMEFRAMES FOR THE ISSUE AND POST- ISSUE FORMALITIES The min. period = 3 working days max.= 10 working days. Allotment has to be made within 30 days of the closure of the Public Issue In case of over-subscription the company may have the right to retain the excess application money and allot shares more than the proposed issue, which is referred to as the green-shoe option.
RESTRICTIONS ON OTHERALLOTMENTS: Firm allotments to mutual funds, FIIs and employees not subject to any lock-in period. Within 12 months of the public no bonus issue should be made. For Employees I ) Maximum % of shares = 5%
ABRIDGED prospectus must be attached Risk factor Objective of issue& cost of project Company’s past/ present business must be disclosed
NET TANGIBLE ASSET ≥ 3 CRORES NET WORTH ≥ 1 CRORE In case of name change 50% of revenue should be under new name
The new guidelines of Applications Supported by Blocked Amount (ASBA) allows investors to apply for an IPO, keeping the application money in their bank accounts till the finalization of the allotment. All scrip will have a circuit limit from the day of listing on exchanges based on a one-hour pre-open trade The normal trading would start after the pre- open session of call auction on BSE and NSE
In the pre-auction trade, for issues less than Rs 250 crore the margin money of 100 per cent of the order value would have to be paid for placing bids. issue size up to Rs 250 crore, the applicable price bands for the first day would be 5 per cent of the equilibrium price discovered during the pre-open session and for IPOs above Rs 250 crore it will be 20 per cent. equilibrium price is not discovered during the call auction, the price band would be fixed on the issue price at the above percentage.