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The SADIe Transcoding Platform


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The World Wide Web (Web) is a visually complex, dynamic, multimedia system that can be inaccessible to people with visual impairments. SADIe addresses this problem by using Semantic Web technologies to explicate implicit visual structures through a combination of an upper and lower ontology. By identifying elements within the Web page, in addition to the role that those elements play, accurate transcoding can be applied to a diverse range of Websites.

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The SADIe Transcoding Platform

  1. 1. The SADIe Transcoding Platform Darren Lunn, Sean Bechhofer and Simon Harper The University of Manchester School of Computer Science
  2. 2. The Web <ul><li>Designed with a focus on presenting information in a visual manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columned Layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chunks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some knowledge is only available implicitly from how the page looks </li></ul><ul><li>Can be difficult to access for users of screen readers </li></ul>
  3. 3. Implicit Knowledge = Advertisement = Banner = Main Content = Menu
  4. 4. Transcoding <ul><li>The adaptation of Web content to suit the needs of the browsing device </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristic Transcoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses rules / patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can adapt a large number of pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can suffer from reduced accuracy issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantic Transcoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses annotations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Consuming As Every Page Is Annotated </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SADIe in Action Image Advertisement Tabs Banner Main Menu Banner Headline Story Overview Main Story Story Overview Headline Main Story
  6. 6. SADIe Approach <ul><li>The visual rendering of a Web element informs the user of its purpose </li></ul><ul><li>The CSS defines the visual rendering </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the purpose of a CSS definition implicitly identifies the purpose of the Web element </li></ul>
  7. 7. Exploiting CSS cnnNavigation{ float:left; border-width:0 1px 0 0; border-style:solid; . . . } CSS <ul class=&quot;cnnNavigation&quot;> <li><a href=&quot;/&quot;>Home</a></li> <li><a href=&quot;/WORLD/&quot;>World</a></li> <li><a href=&quot;/US/&quot;>U.S.</a></li> . . . </ul> (X)HTML
  8. 8. Annotation Through Ontology Upper Ontology . . . (X)HTML (X)HTML (X)HTML . . . CSS CSS CSS . . . Website Ontology
  9. 9. CNN (Partial) Ontology
  10. 10. Transcoding Architecture SADIe Proxy Web Page Identify Ontology Query Ontology Transcode Web page User
  11. 11. Basic User Interface
  12. 12. Advanced User Interface
  13. 13. Incorporated Into Website
  14. 14. Conclusions <ul><li>SADIe combines the benefits of both Heuristic and Semantic Transcoding </li></ul><ul><li>Annotation occurs at the CSS level using an ontology </li></ul><ul><li>One annotation propagates to all pages within the Website </li></ul><ul><li>Transcoding is achieved via a proxy </li></ul><ul><li>SADIe can be instigated via a User interface or embedded within a page </li></ul>
  15. 15. Questions?