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  • Influenza

    1. 1. InfluenzaMeghan DarnellDavid FeninSlade SchellSergey Sovenok
    2. 2. What is Influenza?
    3. 3. Influenza
    4. 4. Transmission
    5. 5. Mutations Antigenic Drift • Mutations occur very often • Small gradual changes • Different strains Antigenic Shift • Mutations don’t occur often • Major changes • Different subtypes
    6. 6. History Influenza was not studied intensively until the 20th century. 1918 H1N1 Strain (Spanish Flu) 1957-58 H2N2 Strain (Asian Flu) 1968 H3N2 Strain
    7. 7. Pandemic Severity Index
    8. 8. 1918 Spanish Flu Originated in U.S. military camps or in China, not in Spain In 1915 the strain was transferred from swine to humans. “Third wave” was the most deadly, killing several million in 1919. May have killed more people than the Black Death, with 20-100 million fatalities Category 5 Pandemic
    9. 9. H2N2 Strain (1958 Asian Flu) Originated in China as a result of a mutation of both the H2N2 avian virus and the H1N1 human virus. Infected mostly youth between the ages of 5 and 19 Had low mortality rate Resulted in 1-4 million fatalities Category 2 Pandemic
    10. 10. 1968 H3N2 Strain Originated in Hong Kong in 1968 Combination of H2N2 human strain and H3 avian strain Human exposure to H2N2 lead to partial immunity to this strain Much lower mortality rates than both the 1918 and 1958 strains Category 2 Pandemic
    11. 11. Epidemiology Swine Flu of February 2009 resulted in a 15- 25% infection rate. In Fall of 2010 the infection rate was 40% in the U.S. 2010 strain ranked as a pandemic 10-20% infection rate is typical in an epidemic
    12. 12. More Epidemiology than you could ever want!
    13. 13. Epidemiology (cont.) Insert Graph here
    14. 14. Signs and Symptoms Fever over 100 F (38 C) Aching muscles, especially in your back, arms and legs Chills and sweats Headache Dry cough Fatigue and weakness Nasal congestion
    15. 15. Pathology Most common symptoms are usually a result of the body’s immune response Pro-inflammatory cytokines Immune response may cause Cytokine Storm
    16. 16. Difference between Cold and Influenza Have similar symptoms Influenza comes on quicker than the Common Cold Influenza virus damages cells while Cold virus symptoms are caused mainly by an inflammatory response.
    17. 17. “Stomach Flu” Nota medical diagnosis Gastroenteritis NOT A FORM OF INFLUENZA Can be caused by multiple factors • Adenovirus, Rotavirus, Calicivirus, and Astrovirus • Waterborne parasites such as Giardia • Certain foods • Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Shigella, and Salmonella
    18. 18. Treatments AntiviralDrugs Over the Counter Medications Nutrition/herbs Interferons
    19. 19. Anti-viral Agents Adamantanes • Treats influenza type A Neuraminidase inhibitors • Treats both Influenza type A and B • Not as Toxic
    20. 20. Tamiflu Neuraminidase Inhibitor E. coli is a key factor in production Side effects
    21. 21. Drug Resistance Since mutations occur in influenza viruses very often the development of a drug resistant strain is very common. More and more resistant viruses As read earlier some antivirals like Tamiflu don’t really kill of the whole virus but do contribute to the killing of most of the viruses China incident
    22. 22. Vaccines
    23. 23. Prevention  WASH YOUR HANDS!!!!! Disinfectants not very effective