LESSON PLAN 2 IN FACILITATING LEARNINGI. Objectives: At the end of the discussion, 85% of the students are expected to: 1. identify and define different factors affecting motivation; 2. compare the different theories on factors affecting motivation; and 3. make a reflection paper in theories on factors affecting motivation.II. Subject Matter: A. Topic: “Theories on Factors Affecting Motivation” B. Materials: visual aid, set of pictures, power point presentation, and textbook. C. References: Facilitating Learning: A Metacognitive Process pp. 181– 191 Maria Rita D. Lucas Ph.D. Brenda B. Corpuz Ph.D. Lorimar Publishing, Inc. http://www.google.com D. Values: Analyze the values and significance of theories affecting motivation in teaching-learning process.III. Procedure: A. Motivation: The students will be asked to give their own perspective from the quotations posted. “Sweat plus sacrifice equals success” - Charles O. Finley – “Quality does not come by accident. It is a product of intention.” - Charles Luckman – B. Presentation: The teacher will present the topic theories on factors affecting motivation. “Theories on Factors Affecting Motivation”Factors Affecting Motivation – are the elements that contributing to a particularresult that affects motivation.
C. Lesson Proper/Discussion: Attribution Theory – explains that we attribute our successes or failures or other events to several factors. For instance, you attribute your popularity to your popular parents or to your own sterling academic performance. Or you attribute the poor economic condition you are in to the Land Reform of the Phil. Gov‟t. (your lands were subjected to land reform) or to the vices of your father. These attributions differ from one another in three ways – locus, stability, and controllability (Ormsrod, 2004). (Why people do what they do?) 1. Locus (“place”): Internal vs. external. If your student traces his good grade to his ability and to his work, he attributes his good grade to internal factors. If your student, however, claims that his good grade is due to the effective teaching of his teacher or to the adequate library facilities, he attributes his good grades to factors external to himself. 2. Stability Stable vs. unstable. If you attribute your poor eyesight to what you have inherited from your parents, then you are attributing the cause of your sickness to something stable, something that cannot change because it is in your genes. If you attribute it to excessive watching of tv, then you are claiming that your poor eyesight is caused by an unstable factor, something that can change. (You can prolong or shorten your period of watching tv). 3. Controllability: Controllable vs. uncontrollable. If your student claims his poor academic performance is due to his teacher‟s in-effective teaching strategy, he attributes his poor performance to a factor beyond his control. If, however, your student admits that his poor class performance is due to his poor study habits and low motivation, he attributes the event to factors which are very much within his control. Self-efficacy Theory – a sense of high self-efficacy means a high sense of competence. It is the belief that one has the necessary capabilities to perform a task, fulfill role expectations, or meet a challenging situation successfully. When your students believe that they have the ability to perform learning activities successfully, they are more likely intrinsically motivated to do such learning activities. The secret, therefore, to enhancing intrinsic motivation is enhancing our students‟ sense of self-efficacy. Social cognitive theorists identified several self-efficacies – enhancing strategies. Make sure students master the basic skills – writing, reading, „rithmetic will enable the child to tackle higher level activities. Help them make noticeable progress on difficult tasks – the knowledge that you are progressing inspires you to keep on.
Communicate confidence in students‟ abilities through both words and actions – Words like, “if you were able to do a more difficult task yesterday, what you are asked to do today is much easier than that of yesterday. Expose them to successful peers – being with successful peers, your students will inhale success and get energized to succeed as well. Other recommendations from motivation theorists are: Provide competence-promoting feedback Provide mastery on challenging tasks Provide self-comparison rather than comparison with others Be sure errors occur within an overall context of success Self-determination and self-regulation theories – Students are more likely intrinsically motivated when they have a sense of self-determination – when they believe that they have some choice and control regarding the things they do and the directions their lives take. Suggestions from motivation theorists to enhance students‟ self-determination about school activities and assignments: Present rules and instructions in an informational manner rather than controlling manner. Provide opportunities for students to make choices. Evaluate student performance in a non-controlling fashion. A student‟s sense of self-determination is demonstrated in his capacity for self- regulation. It refers to a person‟s ability to master himself. He is the “I am the captain of my soul” type of person. Indicators of self-regulation are the abilities to: Set standards for oneself; Monitor and evaluate one‟s own behavior against such standards; and Impose consequences on oneself for one‟s success or failures. Self-regulation related to motivation through: Setting goals and standards Monitoring progress Evaluating own performance
A student who is capable of self-regulation, is not only capable of regulating his behavior, he is also capable of regulating his own learning. Processes Involved in Self-regulated Learning cited by Omrod, 2004: Goal-setting – what they want to accomplish. Planning – determine ahead of time how best to use available time for learning. Attention control – focus their attention on the subject matter at hand and clear their minds. Application of learning strategies – choose different strategies depending on the specific goal. Self-monitoring – monitor their progress toward or modify their goals. Self-evaluation – determine whether what they have learned for the goals they have set. Choice Theory – Bob Sullo (2007) writes: It is a biological theory that suggests we are born with specific needs that we are genetically instructed to satisfy. All of our behavior represents our best attempt at any moment to satisfy our basic needs or genetic instructions.Four Basic Psychological needs that must be satisfied to be Emotionally Healthy: 1. Belonging or connecting 3. Freedom 2. Power or competence 4. Fun Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Goal Theory Learning Goals vs. Performance Goals Learning goal is a desire to acquire additional knowledge or master new skills Performance goal is a desire to look and receive favorable judgments from others or else look bad and receive unfavorable judgments. Self-determined Goals – enhance student‟s motivation. When lesson objectives are owned by the students because they find them relevant to their life, most likely students become highly motivated for learning. Goal Setting – as motivational tool, it is effective when the following major elements are present: 1. Goal acceptance 2. Specificity 3. Challenge 4. Performance monitoring 5. Performance feedback D. Generalization: Theories on factors affecting motivation are important in facilitating or teaching-learning process. These are the following theories on the sources of intrinsic motivation. The following theories are: attribution theory, self- efficacy theory, self-determination theory and self-regulation theory, choice theory, goal theory, and Maslow‟s hierarchy of needs. It is thought that students are more likely to experience intrinsic motivation if they attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control and a joyless classroom does not motivate students to perform.IV. Evaluation: Essay: Discuss briefly. (5 points each) 1. What are the theories on factors affecting motivation? Cite two theories and explain the importance of it. 2. Why do we need to make or create a joyful classroom? Justify your answer.
V. Assignment: Explain Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs. Write your answer in one half sheet of paper.Prepared by:DIVINE HEIDI G. CABIGUINBSE – E/3 – IRREG.Approved by:MS. ANABELLA C. GOMEZEDUC 38 DECEMBER 13, 2012