It is the periodic uterine bleeding that
begins approximately 14 days after
ovulation
It is an involvement of hypothalam...
 Gradually increasing amount of oestrogen
Discharge of blood slow and stops
Lining of the uterus thickens
Follicles in...
Name of
phase
Average start
day
assuming a 28-
day cycle
Average end
day
Average
duration
number of days
Menstrual
)Menstr...
Hormones causes the lining of the uterus to
proliferate
Follicle stimulating hormone [ FSH ]stimulate
few ovarian follic...
The luteal phase is also called the secretory phase An important role is played by the
corpus luteum, the solid body forme...
MENSTRUAL  CYCLE
MENSTRUAL  CYCLE
MENSTRUAL  CYCLE
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MENSTRUAL CYCLE

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MENSTRUAL CYCLE

  1. 1. It is the periodic uterine bleeding that begins approximately 14 days after ovulation It is an involvement of hypothalamus , pituitary, ovary and endometrium.
  2. 2.  Gradually increasing amount of oestrogen Discharge of blood slow and stops Lining of the uterus thickens Follicles in the ovary begins to develop with the help of Luteinizing hormone ( LH) The dominant follicle releases, and it is called ovum or egg . This event is called ovulation. The egg lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization. The dominant follicle in the ovary become corpus leteum, and produce large amount of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone uterus is prepared for implantation of an embryo or pregnancy. If implantation does not occur with in 2 weeks the corpus leteum cause sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and oestrogen. This hormone drops cause the uterus to shed its lining and process menstruation.
  3. 3. Name of phase Average start day assuming a 28- day cycle Average end day Average duration number of days Menstrual )Menstruation(phase 1 4 4 Proliferative phase (Some sources include Menstruation in this phase) 5 13 9 Ovulatory )Ovulation(phase 13 16 4 Luteal phase (also known as Secretory phase) 16 28 13 Ischemic phase 27 28 2 Proliferative phase 1 13 13
  4. 4. Hormones causes the lining of the uterus to proliferate Follicle stimulating hormone [ FSH ]stimulate few ovarian follicles to grow Due to hormones effects only one follicle continue to mature and it is called Graffian follicles ( matured follicle) and it contains ovum. The mature follicle secrete increasing amount of estradial and oestrogen Oestrogen formulate the new layer of endometrium in uterus and oestrogen also produce cervical mucus in cervix.
  5. 5. The luteal phase is also called the secretory phase An important role is played by the corpus luteum, the solid body formed in an ovary after the egg has been released from the ovary into the fallopian tube. This body continues to grow for some time after ovulation and produces significant amounts of hormones, particularly progesterone Progesterone plays a vital role in making the endometrium receptive to implantation of the blastocyst and supportive of the early pregnancy; it also has the side effect of raising the woman's basal body temperature After ovulation, the pituitary hormones FSH and LH cause the remaining parts of the dominant follicle to transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. The increased progesterone in the adrenals starts to induce the production of estrogen. The hormones produced by the corpus luteum also suppress production of the FSH and LH that the corpus luteum needs to maintain itself. Consequently, the level of FSH and LH fall quickly over time, and the corpus luteum subsequently atrophies .Falling levels of progesterone trigger menstruation and the beginning of the next cycle. From the time of ovulation until progesterone withdrawal has caused menstruation to begin, the process typically takes about two weeks, with days considered normal. For an individual woman, the follicular phase often varies in length from cycle to cycle; by contrast, the length of her luteal phase will be fairly consistent from cycle to cycle

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