Neolithic revolution


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Neolithic revolution

  1. 1. The Neolithic Revolution
  2. 2. The Neolithic Age During most of history, most humans made their living by hunting and gathering By the end of this time period, Cro-Magnon man had developed art and complex tools . knives, throwing spears, fish hooks harpoons and sewing needle. Improved tools = improved health and increased food supply = increased population.
  3. 4. The Neolithic Revolution (8000BCE-3500BCE) The Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Sometimes termed the </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Revolution . </li></ul><ul><li>Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in Southwest Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary . </li></ul><ul><li>Populations begin to rise in areas where plant and animal domestication occurred. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Causes of the Neolithic Revolution? The Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Warmer climate </li></ul><ul><li>Longer growing season </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to permanent settlements </li></ul>
  5. 6. Costs & Advantages of Agriculture The Neolithic Revolution Advantages Costs <ul><li>Steady food supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Greater populations </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to organized societies capable of supporting additional vocations (soldiers, managers, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily dependant on certain food crops (failure = starvation) </li></ul><ul><li>Disease from close contact with animals, humans, & waste </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t easily leave sites </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Neolithic Revolution Agriculture Slowly Spreads: What do you notice about the core areas?
  7. 8. The Neolithic Revolution Agriculture and irrigation began in an area of the Middle East called the Fertile Crescent that stretched from Iraq to Egypt. Agriculture is believed to have been started 9000 years ago in Jarmo, an archeological site in the Zargros mountains in North East Iraq
  8. 9. The Neolithic Revolution Independent Development vs. Cultural Diffusion <ul><li>Areas of Independent Development : </li></ul><ul><li>SW Asia (wheat, pea, olive, sheep, goat) </li></ul><ul><li>China & SE Asia (rice, millet, pig) </li></ul><ul><li>Americas (corn, beans, potato, llama) </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of Agriculture Through Diffusion : </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>West & Sub-Saharan Africa (?) </li></ul><ul><li>Indus River Valley (rice cultivation) </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Neolithic Revolution Interactions Between Nomadic Peoples and Sedentary Agricultural Peoples <ul><li>Some nomadic peoples </li></ul><ul><li>engaged in pastoralism . </li></ul><ul><li>Some practiced slash & burn agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>The violent and peaceful interaction between nomads and agriculturalists endures throughout history. (Trade & raids) </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>High starch diets slowly allow </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary populations to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>First plow invented c.6000BCE; </li></ul><ul><li>crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Pop. grows from 5-8 million to 60-70 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out, displacing or assimilating nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization. </li></ul>The Neolithic Revolution Sedentary Agriculturalists Dominate
  11. 12. The Neolithic Revolution First Towns Develop Catal Huyuk Modern Turkey First settled: c. 7000BCE Jericho Modern Israel First settled: c. 7000BCE
  12. 13. The Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Catal Huyuk </li></ul><ul><li>Catal Huyuk = located in Turkey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evidence of crops (wheat, barley and peas) and animals (sheep and cattle). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believed in a Mother Goddess who controlled crop yields. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>permanent homes= collect more possessions = invention of new technologies (pottery and looms for weaving cloth. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. The Neolithic Revolution Weaving looms at Catal Huyuk
  14. 15. The Neolithic Revolution Catal Huyuk Excavations
  15. 16. The Neolithic Revolution Agricultural Surplus Agriculture = increased food production (invention of irrigation) Increased food = surplus = increased population (from 2 million to 60 million) Surplus = specialization of labor
  16. 17. The Neolithic Revolution Specialization leads to Technology <ul><li>Any improvement in farming technology will always lead to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased food surplus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased trade </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The Neolithic Revolution
  18. 19. The Neolithic Revolution First Towns Develop <ul><li>Towns require social differentiation : metal workers, pottery workers, farmers, soldiers, religious and political leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>(POSSIBLE B/C FOOD SURPLUSES!) </li></ul><ul><li>Served as trade centers for the area; specialized in the production of certain unique crafts </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of social stratification (class) </li></ul>
  19. 20. The Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Towns Present Evidence of: </li></ul><ul><li>Religious structures </li></ul><ul><li>(burial rites, art) </li></ul><ul><li>Political & Religious leaders were the same </li></ul><ul><li>Still relied on limited hunting & gathering for food </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Jericho (JAIR-uh-koe) </li></ul><ul><li>The world’s first known city developed at Jericho in Palestine around 8,000 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>Walls were built around Jericho to protect its agricultural surplus from nomadic raiders . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare, too, might have begun at Jericho. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. The Neolithic Revolution <ul><li>Roles of Women </li></ul><ul><li>Women generally lost status under male-dominated, patriarchal systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Women were limited in vocation, </li></ul><ul><li>worked in food production, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Women may have lacked the </li></ul><ul><li>same social rights as men. </li></ul>
  22. 23. The Neolithic Revolution Metal Working: From Copper to Bronze <ul><li>The working of metals became very important to early human settlements for tools & weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Early settlements gradually shifted from copper to the stronger alloy bronze by 3,000BCE—ushers in the Bronze Age ! </li></ul><ul><li>Metal working spread throughout human communities slowly as agriculture had. </li></ul>
  23. 24. The Neolithic Revolution Further Technological Advancements <ul><li>Wheeled Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Saves labor, allows transport of large loads and enhances trade </li></ul><ul><li>Potters Wheel (c.6000BCE) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the construction of more durable clay vessels and artwork </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation & Driven Plows </li></ul><ul><li>Allows further increase of food production, encourages pop. growth </li></ul>
  24. 25. The Neolithic Revolution Early Human Impact on the Environment <ul><li>Deforestation in places where copper, bronze, and salt were produced. </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion and flooding where agriculture disturbed soil and natural vegetation. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective extinction of large land animals and weed plants due to hunting & agriculture. </li></ul>
  25. 26. The Neolithic Revolution Advanced Civilization: The Next Step? <ul><li>By 3500BCE, relatively large, advanced preliterate societies had developed along the Indus, Huang He, Nile, and Tigris & Euphrates Rivers . </li></ul><ul><li>As societies grew in size and need, sedentary human beings were once again faced with pressures to adapt to changing natural and human environments . </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Neolithic Revolution Characteristics of Civilizations <ul><ul><li>Advanced cities (centers for trade), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized workers (artisans), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex institutions (government, religion and economy), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record keeping, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written Language </li></ul></ul>