Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment


  1. 1. Foundations of Individual Behavior Chapter 2
  2. 2. Biographical Characteristics Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics —such as age, gender, and marital status—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.
  3. 3. Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
  4. 4. Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
  5. 5. Learning <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Involves change </li></ul><ul><li>Is relatively permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Is acquired through experience </li></ul>Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
  6. 6. Theories of Learning <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned response </li></ul>Classical Conditioning A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>It grew out in response to teach dog to salivate in response to ringing of a bell in early 1900s by Ivan Pavlov. </li></ul><ul><li>In Pavlov experiment meat was unconditional stimulus and salivation was unconditional response. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning a conditioned response involves building an association between a conditioned stimuli and an unconditioned stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus classical conditioning is passive. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive (unlearned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned (learned) behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. It assumes behavior is function of consequences.
  9. 9. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Attentional processes </li></ul><ul><li>Retention processes </li></ul><ul><li>Motor reproduction processes </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement processes </li></ul>Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation and direct experience.
  10. 10. Social-Learning Theory <ul><li>Attention processes – people lean from a model only when they recognize and pay attention to its critical features. We tend to be most influenced by models that are attractive,& repeatedly available. </li></ul><ul><li>Retention processes – an actions influence depend on how well the individual remembers it after it is no longer available. </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Reproduction Process – after a person has seen a new behavior by observing the model , the watching must be converted to doing. That means individual is capable of reproducing it. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social-Learning Theory <ul><li>Reinforcement process </li></ul><ul><li>individual are motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive reinforcement { incentive or reward} are given. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior that are positively reinforced are learned better and are performed more often. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Social Learning Theory is extension of Operant Conditioning, it also acknowledges the existence of Observational learning & importance of perception in learning. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Theories of Learning (cont’d) <ul><li>Key Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is required to change behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Some rewards are more effective than others. </li></ul><ul><li>The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. </li></ul>Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.
  13. 13. Types of Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a reward for a desired behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
  15. 15. Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.
  16. 16. Behavior Modification <ul><li>Five Step Problem-Solving Model </li></ul><ul><li>Identify critical behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Develop baseline data </li></ul><ul><li>Identify behavioral consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and apply intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate performance improvement </li></ul>OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.
  17. 17. OB MOD Organizational Applications <ul><li>Well Pay versus Sick Pay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employee Discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of punishment can be counter-productive. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developing Training Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the need for external management control. </li></ul></ul>