Article 14


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Article 14

  1. 1. Philippine History and Government<br />Submitted by:Allein Dane E. Cabello<br />
  2. 2. The Department of Education, is the executive department of the Philippine government responsible for the management and governing of the Philippine system of basic education. It is the chief formulator of Philippine educational policy and is responsible for the Philippine primary and secondary school system. The Department of Education is also known by its old name, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports.<br />Department of Education<br />
  3. 3. During the early Spanish period, education in the Philippines was religion-oriented and was primarily for the elite, especially in the first years of Spanish colonization. Access to education by Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. Primary instruction was secularized and free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. It was also through this decree that the Superior Commission of Primary Instruction was established, the seminal agency of the Department of Education.<br />History<br />
  4. 4. We are people organization committed to a culture of excellence in public service. Believing that the most important resource of our country is its people, we make the task of educating the Filipino child our singular mission.<br /> We assist the Filipino child to discover his/her full potential in a child-centered and value-driven teaching-learning environment and thereby, enable him/her to create his/her own destiny in global community. We prepare him/her to become a responsible citizen and an enlightened leader who loves his/her country and is proud to be a Filipino.<br /> We provide a school system…<br />DepEd Vision<br />
  5. 5. Where teachers and principals achieve the desired learning outcome not only because they are empowered, competent and accountable, but because they care; Where administrator exercise visionary leadership responsive to emerging learning needs of the nation; ensure adequate resources; promote appropriate technology; create and sustain a conducive climate to enhance learning; and <br />DepEd Vision<br />
  6. 6. Where the family, the community and other institutions actively support our efforts. <br /> We affirm the right of every Filipino child especially the less advantaged to benefit from such a system. <br /> This is our vision. With God’s help, we dedicate all our talents and energies to its realization. <br />DepEd Vision<br />
  7. 7. To provide quality basic education that is equitably accessible to all and lay the foundation for life-long learning and service for the common good.<br />DepEdMission<br />
  8. 8. The main thrust of the Bureau of Elementary Education is to provide access, progress and quality in elementary education. It formulates and implements key programs and projects to enable every citizen to acquire basic preparation that will make him an enlightened, disciplined, nationalistic, self-reliant, God loving, creative, versatile and productive member of the national community. <br />Bureau of Elementary Education <br />
  9. 9. The program supports the DECS mandate to improve access to and quality elementary education through the opening of complete multigrade classes and completion of incomplete schools in far-flung barangays. It also provides instructional materials, training, school buildings and introduces community support schemes. <br />Key Programs and Projects:MultigradeProgram in Philippine Education (MPPE)<br />
  10. 10. Multigrade Demo Schools Projects (MDSP) <br />Pupil Learning Enhancement Program (PLEP) <br />Little Red School House Project (LRSP) <br />Integrated Curriculum for Multigrade Classes (IC-MG) <br />Early Childhood Development Project (ECDP) <br />The project outlines the broad policy directions to pursue by the State for Filipino children under six year-old. <br />MPPE Projects<br />
  11. 11. The program is an alternative delivery system to provide preschool education to prospective Grade I enrollees throughout the country through contracting.<br /> Preschool classes are organized in the 5th and 6th municipalities and urban poor areas, and are provided preschool experiences for 6 months by private preschool providers. <br />Preschool Service Contracting Program<br />
  12. 12. These are short term summer/semester courses, seminar or training workshops and national conferences done year round primarily aimed to hone the capabilities of regular and SPED teachers, administrators, supervisors and other service providers in addressing the educational needs of gifted and children with disabilities and in managing programs appropriate for them. <br />SPED Personnel Enhancement Program<br />
  13. 13. The development and production of various resource and instructional materials for CSNs include textbooks in braille and in large print, Handbook on Inclusive Education, Reference or Guide Materials for Teachers of Children with Learning Disabilities and Learning Competencies for the Gifted in Grades I-III and Enrichment materials in six learning areas including Computer Education. <br />Resource Materials Development for Children with Special Needs (CSNs)<br />
  14. 14. This program focuses on the training of SPED teachers and social worker as facilitators to provide parents and other community volunteers with knowledge and skills on educational intervention that should be given to infants, toddlers and preschoolers under age 6 who are disabled or those with developmental delays. The program utilizes the Filipino Adaptation of the Portage Guide to Early Education. <br />Early Intervention Program for Children with Disabilities<br />
  15. 15. This project intends to generate competency standards for the workforce in all levels of elementary education. It draws upon the rationale that the improvement of instruction is influenced, to a certain degree, by setting standards for what the students, as well as other education stakeholders, should know and be able to do. <br />Standards for Quality Elementary Education (SQEE)<br />
  16. 16. By the Third Millennium, every Filipino youth shall further enjoy a better quality of life due to access to quality secondary education, good spiritual and moral life, economic stability, relevant cultural values, comprehensive work skills, strong sense of national identity and successful adjustment to his rapidly changing environment. <br />Bureau of Secondary Education<br />
  17. 17. The CDD coordinates research projects on curriculum innovations which are initiated by the Bureau for implementation in the field. <br />Curriculum Development Division<br />
  18. 18. The SDD formulates plans and programs to upgrade the competencies of the teaching and non-teaching staff of secondary schools. <br />Staff Development Division<br />
  19. 19. The Pop-Ed unit is asked to provide an understanding of population-related matters and issues to enable individuals to make rational and responsible decisions concerning them. <br />Population Education Unit<br />
  20. 20. The Government through the Education Service Contracting (ESC) Scheme and the Tuition Fee Supplement (TFS) has entered into a contract with the private schools in order to accommodate those who otherwise will not be able to avail of free public secondary education. As of January 15, 1999, the ESC has 374,918 student beneficiaries in 1,122 participating schools, while the TSF has 162,966 grantees in 638 participating schools. <br />Key Programs:GASTPE (Government Assistance to Student and Teachers in Private Education)<br />
  21. 21. This is a pilot program on community service and public safety training in six (6) tryout schools, both public and private, particularly in CAR, Central Visayas and Southern Mindanao, to further address the need for curriculum relevance. <br />CS-PST (Community Service and Public Safety Training)<br />
  22. 22. A research and development program which aims to improve high school students' cognitive skills through the purposeful teaching of thinking skills. It was previously tried out in six (6) schools. <br />TSD-MCP (Thinking Skills Development for Maximized Cognitive Performance)<br />
  23. 23. At the institutional level, efficiency requires the upgrading of teacher competence in order to improve performance, that is, the quality of teaching. Science and technology specialists are being trained on the improvisation and utilization of science and technology equipments. POP-ED Network staff were also trained to enhance their capability in the use of updated software and other communication services. <br />Teacher Training Programs<br />
  24. 24. A school-industry partnership between the private sector and the government in order to provide all the resources the public system needs. <br />Adopt-A-School Program<br />
  25. 25. The program provides instructional materials to prevent students from quitting schools due to poverty or illness. It provides them opportunities to make up for missed lessons and complete their high school education. <br />SIP (Self-Instructional Packages) in SRA (Social Reform Agenda) Provinces<br />
  26. 26. Age need not be a deterring factor for those who wish to pursue secondary education. The BP-OSA is a novel alternative delivery system that provides our-of-school adults high school education and assistance on entrepreneurial and employable skills for initial job opportunity.<br /> There are presently 31 secondary schools all over the country serving almost 1,381 adult learner. <br />BP-OSA (Balik-Paaralan Para Sa Out-Of-School Adults)<br />
  27. 27. The project caters for students who cannot attend class regularly due to personal, economic or financial reasons. It intends to complement the existing formal system to make secondary education more accessible to students in disadvantaged situation. By providing modules, an EASE student can enter into a contract with the school to study at home for a period of time until became ready to return of formal school system. <br />Project EASE (Effective and Affordable Secondary Education)<br />
  28. 28. This is a departure from the conventional external evaluation that is commonly administered to measure the performance of the school in general and the learners in particular. The advantage of the school-based evaluation is that it is initiated, planned and implemented by the principal and the teachers themselves.<br /> The program is being tried out in two (2) schools in Region I, but is limited to the area of Mathematics. <br />School Based Education<br />
  29. 29. The project focuses on the relevance of the curriculum to the local culture. It took off with a national workshop on the development of curriculum frameworks and sample lesson plans in eight (8) subject areas. <br />Indigenization/Localization of the Secondary Education Curriculum<br />
  30. 30. A curriculum that addresses or guides the learner's need in making sound decisions that match his/her aptitude and interests. Presently, the program is now being institutionalized in secondary schools nationwide after a week-long training of program implementors at the division and school levels. <br />RHGP (Revitalized Homeroom Guidance Program)<br />
  31. 31. Competitions in Population Education Competitions are conducted that highlights the responsiveness of education in promoting curricular programs related to societal concerns, like population education.<br /> There are three (3) national competitions which focus on population education, namely; National Pop Quiz, the National Poster Making Contest, and Essay Writing Contest were conducted to promote public awareness on the subject. <br />Population Education Program<br />
  32. 32. This is a quarterly publication of the PEP newsletter which aims to supplement the existing population education instructional materials for all levels. It serves as a clearing house for PEP activities at the regional level. <br />PEPTALK<br />
  33. 33. This is a monthly newsletter of the Population Education Information Network which contains PopEd updates and other related information for various types of user groups. <br /> Provides networking, communications and information exchange between and among PEP DECS, Regional POPED Units as well as other program-related network within and outside DECS. <br />Population Education Information Network (POPEDIN)<br />
  34. 34. This program complements the existing school program in population education. The objectives of the program are to enhance knowledge, attitudes and practices of parents on PopEd related concerns and to empower them as teaching partners of the school in educating their children and other community members. The project kicked off by conducting a modified Delphi study which revealed that parents should handle delicate topics on adolescent reproductive health. <br />Home-Partnership Program<br />
  35. 35. The Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines, abbreviated as CHED. The CHED is attached to the Office of the President for administrative purposes. It covers both public and private higher education institutions as well as degree-granting programs in all post-secondary educational institutions in the country.<br />Commission on Higher Education<br />
  36. 36. The CHED was established on May 18, 1994 through Republic Act No. 7722 or the Higher Education Act of 1994 which was authored by Senator Francisco Tatad.<br /> The creation of CHED was part of a broad agenda for reforms in the country's education system, outlined by the Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) in 1992.<br />History<br />
  37. 37. The former chairman of the Commission on Higher Education was Romulo Neri, formerly Director General of the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) and Socioeconomic Secretary. Neri was also a former Budget Secretary. Former Chairman Puno was replaced by the President, with Neri appointed to CHED temporarily to conduct a special mission and rehabilitate some of its aspects as part of the projects of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. On July 9, 2008 however, Corazon dela Paz resigned as president and chief executive officer of the Social Security System and the President named Chairman Romulo Neri as head of the SSS.<br />Chairman<br />
  38. 38. On August 20, 2008, Manny Angeles was appointed new CHED Chairman, replacing Romulo Neri, and will be taking over acting CHED Chair Nona Ricaforte. Angeles was former chancellor of the Angeles University Foundation and president of the Clark Development Corporation. William Medrano was also appointed commissioner of the CHED on August 29, 2008.<br />Chairman<br />
  39. 39. Centers of Excellence (COEs) and Centers of Development (CODs) are higher education institutions (HEIs) both public and private which have demonstrated the highest degree or level of standards along the areas of instruction, research and extension. These provide institutional leadership in all aspects of development in specific areas of discipline in the various regions by providing networking arrangements to help ensure the accelerated development of Higher Educational Institutions in their respective service areas.<br />Centers of Excellence<br />
  40. 40. CHED disseminates information by a variety of means. For information specific to a particular institution, a letter is sent to that institution, or an officer is invited to collect it at CHED main office. The institution may then place a copy of the order on one of its own noticeboards, if the order is favorable.<br />Dissemination of Information by CHED<br />
  41. 41. Most tertiary institutions, generically called higher education institutions by the Commission on Higher Education of the Philippines (CHED) are licensed, controlled, and supervised by CHED. Records from CHED showed that the country had 1,573 private institutions and 607 state-run colleges and universities, a total of 2,080 HEIs as of August 2010.<br /> Higher education institutions in the Philippines are either colleges or universities, and are generally classified as public or private.<br /> Colleges are tertiary institutions that typically offer one or a few specialized courses, for example, in the sciences or in liberal arts, or in specific professional courses, such as Nursing, Computing, or Maritime Studies.<br />Classification<br />
  42. 42. To be classified as universities, state universities and colleges (SUCs), CHED-supervised higher education institutions (CHEIs), private higher education institutions (PHEIs), and community colleges (CCs), must operate at least eight different degree programs. They must offer at least six undergraduate courses including a four year course in liberal arts, a four year course in Basic Science Mathematics, a four year course in the Social Sciences, a minimum of three other active and recognized professional courses leading to government licensures, and at least two graduate-level courses leading to doctoral degrees. A further seven areas of requirements as universities are mandated by the Commission on Higher Education.<br />Classification<br />
  43. 43. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State University and College (SUC) or Local College and University (LCU)." SUCs are fully funded by the national government as determined by the Philippine Congress. The University of the Philippines, being the "national university," receives the biggest chunk of the budget among the 456 state colleges and universities. LCUs, on the other hand, are run by local government units. The PamantasanngLungsodngMaynila is first and largest among the LCUs.<br />Public Tertiary Education<br />
  44. 44. Private colleges and universities may either be "sectarian" or "non-sectarian" entities. Institutions may be not-for-profit, or profit-oriented. Most private schools are not-for-profit Catholic like Adamson University (Vincentian), the Ateneo de Manila University (Jesuit), De La Salle University (Christian Brothers), and the University of Santo Tomas (Dominican). However, there are also non-Catholic not-for-profit sectarian institutions such as Adventist University of the Philippines (Seventh-day Adventists), Central Philippine University (Baptist), Philippine Christian University (Methodist), and New Era University (Iglesiani Cristo). Non-sectarian private schools, on the other hand, are corporations licensed by the Securities and Exchange Commission.<br />Private Tertiary Institutions<br />
  45. 45. Accreditation is a process for assessing and upgrading the educational quality of higher education institutions and programs through self-evaluation and peer judgment. It is a system of evaluation based on the standards of an accrediting agency, and a means of assuring and improving the quality of education. The process leads to a grant of accredited status by an accrediting agency and provides public recognition and information on educational quality.<br />Accreditation<br />
  46. 46. Voluntary accreditation of all higher education institutions is subject to the policies of the Commission on Higher Education. Voluntary accrediting agencies in the private sector are the Philippine Accrediting Association of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU), the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities' Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA), and the Association of Christian Schools, Colleges and Universities Accrediting Association Inc. (ACSCU-AAI) which all operate under the umbrella of the Federation of Accrediting Agencies of the Philippines (FAAP), which itself is the certifying agency authorized by CHED. Accreditation can be either of programs or of institutions.<br />Accreditation of Private Institutions<br />
  47. 47. Accrediting agencies for government-supported institutions are the Accrediting Association of Chartered Colleges and Universities of the Philippines (AACCUP), and the Association of Local Colleges and Universities Commission On Accreditation (ALCUCOA). Together they formed the National Network of Quality Assurance Agencies (NNQAA) as the certifying agency for government-sponsored institutions. However NNQAA does not certify all government-sponsored institutions.<br />Accreditation for Public Institutions<br />
  48. 48. In an effort to rationalize its supervision of institutions of higher learning, CHED has also prescribed guidelines for granting privileges of autonomy and deregulation to certain schools. According to the guidelines, the general criteria examined by CHED are an institution's "long tradition of integrity and untarnished reputation," "commitment to excellence," and "sustainability and viability of operations."<br />Autonomy and Deregulation<br />
  49. 49. Autonomous status allows universities to design their own curricula, offer new programs and put up branches or satellite campuses without having to secure permits, confer honorary degrees, and carry out operations without much interference from CHED. Aside from all host state colleges and universities and other chartered public universities, such as the University of the Philippines, PamantasanngLungsodngMaynila, and Mindanao State University. 44 private higher education institutions have been granted autonomous status.<br />Autonomous status<br />
  50. 50. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) with deregulated status enjoy the same privilege as autonomous HEIs, but they must still secure permits for new programs and campuses.<br /> CHED regularly updates its list of autonomous institutions with the latest published list valid to 6 October 2009. As at that date 15 deregulated HEIs were listed by CHED.<br />Deregulated status<br />
  51. 51. There are no set methods for ranking institutions in the Philippines. Aside from comparisons in terms of accreditation, autonomy, and centers of excellence awarded by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), there are attempts to rank schools based on performance in board exams conducted by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC). The PRC and CHED sometimes publish reports on these results.<br />Rankings and League Tables:Local rankings<br />
  52. 52. Internationally, the Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle University, the University of the Philippines, and the University of Santo Tomas are those that had been regularly listed as among the region and world's top universities in league tables and surveys such as in the now-defunct Asiaweek university rankings (which last ranked universities in 1999 and 2000), and the THES-QS World University Rankings in 2005, 2006, and 2008.<br />Rankings and League Tables:International Rankings<br />
  53. 53. Rankings such as the THES-QS have been received with mixed reactions. In 2006, AngPamantasan, the official student paper of PamantasanngLungsodngMaynila, published the university's criticism on the rankings, saying that the THES-QS criteria do not apply to the unique landscape of each participating universities, and that such rankings say nothing or very little about whether students are actually learning at particular colleges or universities. On the same year, the University of the Philippines, through its University President EmerlindaRomán, expressed that it does not want to participate in the THES-QS Ranking, but was included in 2007 with an incomplete academic profile.<br />Rankings and League Tables:International Rankings<br />
  54. 54. End…<br />