Gherardo Casini, Head of the Global Centre for ICT in Parliament, a joint initiative of the UN and the Inter-Parliamentary Union, which explores and promotes the use of new media in Parliaments worldwide
Take Action! Online engagement and the power to change the worldThe use of new media by Parliaments Global Centre for ICT in Parliament Gherardo Casini
Global Centre for ICT in parliamentJoint initiative of the United Nations and theInter-Parliamentary Union launched in 2005at WSIS (Tunis)Driven by parliaments through a high-levelBoard and partnerships with legislaturesA hub for research and analyses, networkingand coordination, and technical assistance www.ictparliament.org
Key activitiesWorld e-Parliament Conferences: Geneva,2007; Brussels, 2008; Washington, 2009;Johannesburg, 2010.Global Survey on ICT in Parliament 2007World e-Parliament Report 2008Global Survey on ICT in Parliament 2009World e-Parliament Report 2010Guidelines and working groups
World e-Parliament Report 2010 Highlights and Major Findings
World e-Parliament Report 2010• Assist parliamentary leaders, members, and staff in responding to these challenges• Report findings from survey conducted by the Global Centre for ICT in Parliament in 2009. – 264 chambers, 188 countries, 2 regional parliaments – 134 responses • 109 countries • 27,249 legislators (61% of world total)
Countries whose parliaments responded to the survey
World e-Parliament Report 2010• Highlights two critical issues – Communication with citizens – Demand for transparency and accountability• Assesses the state of the foundation for e- Parliament – Systems for managing document – ICT support for library and research services – Technical infrastructure – Strategic planning for ICT
World e-Parliament Report 2010• Proposes a methodology for assessing ICT and state of e-parliament• Analyzes inter-parliamentary cooperation and how to leverage synergies among legislatures by working collaboratively
Topics• The challenges facing parliaments• Background of the 2010 Report• How parliaments are doing: Major findings• The state of e-parliament in 2010• Cooperation and collaboration at the international level• An e-parliament framework for 2010-2020• The imperative of moving forward
Growth in mobile subscriptions and Internet users 1997-2009 (in 000,000s) Mobile subscriptions Internet Users
Trust in national institutions: regional averages
Challenges facing parliaments• ICT is dramatically changing the political environment• Parliaments can not be mere witnesses to these transformative effects• Parliaments are exploring ways to use ICT to promote accessible, transparent and accountable institutions, and to communicate with citizens
Communication with Citizens• The topic is high on the agenda of parliaments’ leadership and members• There are different levels/relationships to be considered:between Members and the electoratebetween Committees and citizensbetween Parliament and the society
Some concerns• Interaction – one way or two-way exchange?• Responsiveness – ability to respond effectively and timely?• Representativeness – how representatives the comments/exchanges are?• Values – how informed and useful is the input?
Communication with the public• Some improvement since 2007, especially in the use by members of e-mail and websites• 78% reported that some or most members use e-mail to communicate with citizens• But only 51% reported that some or most members use personal websites
Communication with the public (2)• Audio and video technologies will be predominant in the next few years – Webcasting of plenary sessions (72%) – Webcasting of committee sessions (50%)
Communication with the public (3)• Top five technologies that are predicted to have highest growth rates are all interactive – Online discussion groups – 280% – Online polls –227% – e-Petition –208% – e-Consultation on issues –167% – e-Consultation on bills – 163%
Communication with the public (4)• Challenges: – Members are not familiar with the technology – Citizens are not familiar with the legislative process
Trend in citizen use of technology-based methods of communication 85%
Transparency / accountability• Websites have become the primary means by which parliaments can achieve the goals of transparency and accountability.• Documentation must be complete, timely and understandable• Nearly every parliament now has a website
Transparency / accountability (2)• But many websites do not yet meet some of the most important recommendations of the IPU Guidelines for Parliamentary Websites – 1/3 do not provide text and status of proposed legislation – 55% have not implemented standards for access by persons with disabilities
Transparency/accountability (3) It is easy to put up a website – it is difficult to build a good one
Systems and standards for documents• Essential for improving the efficiency of a parliament’s operations and enabling to achieve transparency and accessibility.• Yet little progress since 2007 – Less than half have Document Management Systems (DMS) for bills – Only 25% use XML for any document
Parliaments with systems for managing the text of bills by income group 46% 78% 5%
DMS for committee and plenary documents by income groups 73%
Information support: library and research services• ICT has created even greater demands for information• Has raised the standard by which the currency, completeness, and customization of information are judged.• Some parliamentary libraries have become leaders in integrating technology into their work in new and innovative ways.
Information support: library and research services (2)• Inadequate resources for training• Limited availability of technology• In some cases, lack of understanding of the contribution they can make to the effectiveness of the parliamentary business
Parliamentary libraries connected to an intranet, by income group 96% of Parliaments have LANs but only 58% connect their libraries
Technical Infrastructure• Must be robust and flexible• Some improvements – Support for plenary – Training for members and staff
Technical Infrastructure (2)• Continuing challenges – 96% have a LAN but only 72% state that all members and committees are connected – So over ¼ are NOT connected – Need more applications to support legislative and oversight work
Parliaments and strategic planning: Implementing a vision for ICT
Strategic Planning• Factors for success – Leadership – Willingness to state a vision, values, and goals of the parliament – Involvement of all stakeholders – Capacity and commitment to managing change
Establishing and updating the strategic plan• 60% of parliaments report they have a strategic plan with goals, objectives, and timetables• Less than 50% a plan and update it regularly• Less than 40% have criteria to measure the success of the plan
And so what is the overall status of ICT inparliaments…what is the state of e-Parliament worldwide?
State of e-Parliament in 2010• Based on collective scores for: – Oversight and management – Infrastructure – Systems / standards for documentation – Library and research services – Websites – Communication
State of e-Parliament in 2010 Range of total scores: 13.5% to 82.7%
State of e-Parliament in 2010 (2)• Highest level of adoption – sound management organization – solid yet flexible infrastructure – systems for managing all parliamentary documents – strong library support through ICT
State of e-Parliament in 2010 (3)• Highest level of adoption – websites offer a great deal of timely and complete information with multiple channels to access it – variety of methods for engaging with citizens through traditional communication means as well as new and more interactive media
State of e-Parliament in 2010 (4)• Lowest level of adoption – Lack an appropriate management structure – Lack an adequate infrastructure (some do not have reliable electrical power) – Often have no systems for managing documents
State of e-Parliament in 2010 (5)• Lowest level of adoption – Very weak libraries and research services – Websites with the least amount of information (a few do not have websites at all) – Many have no capabilities for using ICT- supported methods to communicate with citizens.
State of e-Parliament in 2010 (6)• Middle level of adoption – Vary in their strengths and weaknesses – Have bits and pieces but not a coherent strategy – Usually have not achieved a high level of adoption in any categories – Unevenness in implementation
State of e-Parliament in 2010 (7)• Level of adoption directly affects MPs: – 27,249 legislators represented in the survey 2009 – 20% do not have a personal desktop or laptop computer at their disposal – 31% are not provided with access to the parliament’s intranet
State of e-Parliament in 2010 (8)• Level of adoption affects members – 28% cannot access the text and current status of proposed legislation – 47% serve in parliaments that have not implemented accessibility standards – 44% do not have access to a library website that can organize information sources based on issues of concern to members.
State of e-Parliament in 2010:economic and regional analysis
State of e-Parliament in 2010:economic and regional analysis (2)
Examples from Latin America• National Assembly of Ecuador – New media presence and explanatory noteshttp://www.asambleanacional.gov.ec/• Senate of Chile – Senador Virtualhttp://www.senadorvirtual.cl/• Chamber of Deputies of Brazil – e- democracy programmehttp://www2.camara.gov.br/participe/sua-propos
Conclusions from the 2010 findings• There has been some but clearly not enough progress since the 2008 report• Most parliaments are still not making the best use of technology• There is some indication that the gap between technically advanced parliaments and those who are not is growing larger
The imperative of moving forward• Many parliaments are failing significantly to reach the full potential that ICT can offer to strengthen the institution; they may, in fact, be falling even further behind.• Technology enables parliaments to realize the values of transparency, accessibility, accountability and effectiveness.
The imperative of moving forward (2)In the age of the Information Society, theability of parliaments to fulfill theirresponsibilities as representatives of thepeople and to attain the highest levels ofopenness requires the effective and creativeapplication of information and communicationtechnologies in their daily work.
The imperative of moving forward (3) To achieve these goals, parliaments have to be able to share experiences, knowledge, and ideas with each other in regional and international settings in a collaborative global environment.