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Introduction to medical terminology hss edition 11-2009

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Introduction to medical terminology hss edition 11-2009

  1. 1. Introduction LESSON #1When in doubt ofthe terminology,tell your patientsthey’re very sick.
  2. 2. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY• The words – or terms – which make up the language of medicine are referred to as the terminology of the medical field…known as medical terminology.• Like every other language, medical terminology has changed over time and will continue to change.• Most medical terms come from the Greek and Latin languages. 3
  3. 3. How It WorksMost medical terms can be broken down into parts like asentence. Common word parts/components:  Prefixes / Roots or Words / SuffixesLinking or combining vowel usually “o”, but occasionally“e” or “i”.The medical terms will contain one or more of thesecomponents. 4
  4. 4. PREFIXA prefix is a word component placed in front of a root/word to change or modify its meaning.A prefix can give a root direction or position. It can also give a root a specific type/ classification, quality, or quantity. 5
  5. 5. Common Prefixes• Ab- away from midline • Homo- same, similar• Acu- needle • Hyster- uterus• Anti- against • Men- menstruation• Auto- self • Quadri- four• Bi- two, both, double • Re- back, again• Dys- abnormal, bad, • Super- above, beyond painful • Tri- three• Hemi- half• Hetero- opposite, different 6
  6. 6. More Prefixes!• A-, An- without, none • Epi- upon, over, above• Ad- toward/near midline • Ex- out, out of• Acro- extremities • Hyper- excessive,• Ambi- on both sides above, too much, over,• beyond Bio- life • Hypo- less than, under,• Brady- slow below, deficient• Circum- around, encircling• Contra- against• Dys- difficult, painful, bad, abnormal• Endo- within 7
  7. 7. PREFIXES continued• Hydro- fluid, water • Poly- many, much• Inter- between • Post- after, behind• Intra- within • Pro- before, in front of,• Iso- equal forward• Mal- ill, bad • Retro- behind, backward• Meta- after, beyond, • Sub- under, below, beneath change • Supra- above, on the top• Multi- many, more than side one • Tachy- fast• Neo- new or abnormal • Trans- across, over 8
  8. 8. SUFFIXA suffix is a word component added to the end of a root/word that changes or modifies its usage, function, or meaning. 9
  9. 9. SUFFIXES: Surgical Procedures-centesis – to puncture/tap to draw fluid from-desis – surgical fixation, fusion-ectomy – excision, removal, cut out-pexy - fixation Moe, after the-plasty – surgical repair, correction bandages come off and the wounds-rrhaphy – suture heal, you’ll still be-sect – to cut a pig.-stomy – forming a new opening-tome – instrument for cutting-tomy – incision into, cut into-tripsy – to crush, break down-puncture – to pierce a surface 10
  10. 10. SUFFIXES: diagnostic procedures-assay – examine, analyze-gram – written record, recording-graph – instrument for recording-graphy – process of recording-manometer – instrument for measuring pressure-manometry – process of measuring pressure-meter – instrument for measuring-metery – process of measuring-opsy – to view-scope - instrument for examining-scopy – process of examining, examination 11
  11. 11. SUFFIXES: 5 rrh’s-rrhagia – excessive flow, profuse fluid discharge-rrhage – excessive flow, profuse fluid discharge-rrhaphy – suture-rrhea – flow, discharge-rrhexis - rupture 12
  12. 12. SUFFIXES: pertaining to…Suffixes that all mean pertaining to: -ac (cardiac) -al (dental) -ar (tonsilar) -ary (pulmonary) -ia (bradycardia) -ic (gastric) -ical (chemical) -ium (cardium) -ous (mucous) -tic (pancreatic) -us (hydrocephalus) 13
  13. 13. More Suffixes!-algia, -algesia – pain-cele – herniation, swelling-cide – killing, agent that kills-cyte - cell-emia – blood condition-ism – condition, disease-ist – specialist-itis – inflammation-logist – one who studies, specialist-logia, -logy – the study of-lysis – destruction, break down-megaly – enlarged-oid – resembling, like 14
  14. 14. MORE SUFFIXES-oma – tumor, mass-opia, -opsia – vision-osis – condition of-pathy – disease-plasm – growth/formation of tissue-pnea – breath, breathing-porosis – porous, decrease in density-ptosis – drooping, prolapsed-ptysis – spitting, spit up-spasm – twitching, involuntary contraction-therapy – treatment 15
  15. 15. ROOTA root is the basic element of a word, and it is thefoundation on which the meaning of a word is built.Many roots are real words in their own right andterm. Although these roots can have otherelements, they dont need other elements to becomplete.A root can be a whole word or a part of a word. Rootscome from many different languages, mainly Greek andLatin, and find their way into English. 16
  16. 16. Rules!To define medical terms, divide or slash them into their component parts; these word components are called prefixes, suffixes, and roots.Use the hyphen ( - ) after the word component to indicate that it is a prefix; use it after the combining form to indicate that it needs a suffix; use it before the word component to indicate it is a suffix. For example: Epi-gastr/o/-cele 17
  17. 17. More Rules!Use the combining vowel “o” when a suffix begins with aconsonant. i.e Termin/o/logyUse the combining vowel “o” when combining two roots only ifthe second root begins with a consonant. i.e. Pneum/o/thoraxDo not use the combining vowel “o” if you are combining asecond root that begins with a vowel or a suffix that begins witha vowel (a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y). i.e. Pneum/arthr/osisAdd –y to a word to indicate a procedure (gastroscopy) or –lyto indicate an act or process (splenomegaly). 18
  18. 18. And More Rules!!The suffix –osis always denotes a condition (usually abnormal). When combined with the color roots erythr/o- (red) and leuk/o- (white), it represents a condition of abnormally increased blood cells.Most of the time, word components denoting color are used as prefixes. However, sometimes they are the root of the medical term. 19
  19. 19. ROOTS: ColorsAlb/o, Albin/o, Leuk/o – whiteChlor/o – greenCirrh/o – orange-yellowCyan/o – blueEosin/o, Erythr/o, Rhod/o, Rose/o, Rubr/i/o – red, rosyFlav/o, Jaund/o, Lute/o, Xanth/o – yellowFusc/o – dark brownGlauc/o – gray, bluish greenan/o – blackPoli/o, Tephr/o – gray, ashenPurpur/i - purple 20
  20. 20. THE BODY BLOOD  REPRODUCTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR – FEMALE ENDOCRINE  REPRODUCTIVE – MALE GASTROINTESTINAL  RESPIRATORY INTEGUMENTARY  SENSES (5) LYMPHATIC/IMMUNE  SKELETAL MUSCULAR  URINARY NERVOUS 21
  21. 21. BLOOD SYSTEM• Agglutin/o – clumping• Amyl/o - starch• Anis/o – unequal• Angi/o – blood/ lymph vessels• Arteri/o - artery• Bas/o, basi/o – base, foundation• Coagul/o – coagulation, clotting• Eosin/o – red, rosy, dawn• Erythr/o – red• Ferr/i, ferr/o – iron• Granul/o – granules• Haem/a, hem/o, hemat/o - blood 22
  22. 22. BLOOD SYSTEM• Kal/i – potassium• Leuk/o – white• Myel/o – bone marrow, spinal cord• Natr/o – sodium• Neutr/o –neutral• Norm/o – normal, usual• Phleb/o - vein• Phosphat/o – phosphate• Poikil/o – variation, irregular• Pykn/o, pycn/o – thick, dense• Rhod/o – red, rosy 23
  23. 23. BLOOD SYSTEM• Sangu/i, sanguin/o – blood• Sapr/o – rotten, decay• Schist/o – split, cleft• Ser/o – serum, serous• Sider/o – iron• Spher/o – round, sphere• Strept/o – twisted, curved• Thromb/o – clot, thrombus• Vas/o, vascul/o – blood vessel• Ven/o - vein 24
  24. 24. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 1. Hem/o/lysis - ______________________ 2. Hyper/kal/emia - ___________________ 3. Thromb/o/pheresis - ________________ 4. Hyp/o/volemia - ____________________ 5. Erythr/o/cyte - _____________________ 6. Phleb/itis - ________________________ 7. Hemat/o/logy - _____________________©2009 by Flex Ed All Rights Reserved 25
  25. 25. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER1. Hem/o/lysis –  Blood breakdown2. Hyper/kal/emia –  Excess potassium in the blood3. Thromb/o/pheresis -  Clot removal4. Hyp/o/volemia –  Low blood volume5. Erythr/o/cyte –  Red blood cell6. Phleb/itis –  Vein inflammation7. Hemat/o/logy -  Study of blood 26
  26. 26. CARDIOVASCULAR• Cardium – the heart• Cardi/o – heart• Angi/o – vessel• Aort/o – aorta• Arteri/o - artery• Ather/o – fatty substance, plaque• Atri/o – atrium• Coron/o – heart• Embol/o – embolus, clot• Isch/o – supress, restraint• Mi/o – less, smaller• My/o - muscle 27
  27. 27. CARDIOVASCULAR• Palpit/o, palpitat/o – flutter, throbbing• Rhe/o – flow, current, stream• Sphygm/o – pulse• Tel/e – distant, far, end• Valv/o, valvul/o – valve• Varic/o – varicose veins• Vas/o, vascul/o – vessel• Ven/o – vein• Ventricul/o – heart/ brain ventricle• Venul/o - venule 28
  28. 28. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER1. Cardi/o/megaly - ____________________2. Cardi/o/my/o/pathy - _________________3. Brady/card/ia - _____________________4. Tachy/card/ia - _____________________5. Peri/card/ium - _____________________6. My/o/card/ia - ______________________7. Sphygm/o/man/o/meter - _____________8. Arteri/o/scler/osis - __________________ 29
  29. 29. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER1. Cardi/o/megaly - • Enlarged heart2. Cardi/o/my/o/pathy • Heart muscle disease3. Brady/card/ia - • Slow heart rate4. Tachy/card/ia - • Fast heart rate5. Peri/card/ium - • Sac around the heart6. My/o/card/ia - • Heart muscle7. Sphygm/o/man/o/meter - • Blood pressure cuff8. Arteri/o/scler/osis - • Hardening of the arteries 30
  30. 30. DIRECTIONAL TERMS Medial, Medi/o – midline, toward the center (middle) Lateral, Later/o – towards the side, away from the midline Superior, Super/o – above, over Inferior, Infer/o – below, under Proximal, Proxim/o – near, closest to the origin Distal, Dist/o – away from, farthest from the origin 31
  31. 31. DIRECTIONAL TERMS Cranial, crani/o – toward the head Caudal, caud/o – toward the back or tail Dorsal, dors/o – near upper surface, back Ventral, ver/o – toward the bottom, front Posterior, poster/o – back, behind, after, toward the rear Anterior, anter/o – front, in front of 32
  32. 32. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER1. Mediosuperior –2. Inferolateral –3. Laterosuperior –4. Inferomedial –5. Posterosuperior –6. Anterolateral –7. Posteromedial –8. Proximolateral - 33
  33. 33. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER1. Mediosuperior – Middle, upper2. Inferolateral – Below, to the side3. Laterosuperior – To the side, upper4. Inferomedial – Below, middle5. Posterosuperior – Back, upper6. Anterolateral – Front, to the side7. Posteromedial – Back, middle8. Proximolateral - Closest to the point of origin, to the side 34
  34. 34. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM• Acr/o – extremities • Sial/o - saliva• Aden/o – gland • Thym/o – thymus gland• Adren/o – adrenal glands • Thyr/o, thyriod/o – thyroid• Cortic/o – cortex gland• Crin/o – secrete, separate • Tox/o, toxic/o – poison,• toxins Gluc/o, glyc/o – glucose, sugar • Troph/o – growth,• Hirsut/o – hairy nourishment• Hormon/o – hormone• Hidr/o - sweat 35
  35. 35. MATCH THE TERMS1. Adrenalectomy A. Pancreatic stone2. Adrenalitis B. Pertaining to the cortex3. Pancreatalgia adrenal glands4. Pancreatolith C. Condition of being hairy5. Corticoadrenal D. Removal of adrenal glands6. Crinogenic E. Hormone formation7. Hirsutism F. Disease of the pineal gland8. Hormonopoiesis G. Pain in the pancreas9. Pinealopathy H. Inflammed adrenal glands I. Production of secretions 36
  36. 36. MATCH THE TERMS1. Adrenalectomy – Removal of adrenal glands2. Adrenalitis – Inflammed adrenal glands3. Pancreatalgia – Pain in the pancreas4. Pancreatolith – Pancreatic stone5. Corticoadrenal – Cortex and adrenal glands6. Crinogenic – Production of secretions7. Hirsutism – Condition of being hairy8. Hormonopoiesis – Hormone formation9. Pinealopathy – Disease of the pineal gland 37
  37. 37. GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM• Abdomin/o – abdomen• Amyl/o – starch• An/o – anus• Bil/i – bile• Bucc/o – cheek• Cec/o – cecum• Celi/o – abdomen• Chol/e – gall, bile• Cholecyst/o - gallbladder• Col/o – colon• Dent/i - tooth 38
  38. 38. GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM• Dips/o – thirst Please pass the• Duoden/o – doudenum thingy for the• Enter/o – intestines thingy.• Esophag/o – esophogus• Gastr/o – stomach• Gingiv/o – gums• Gloss/o – tongue• Hepat/o – liver• Ile/o – ileum• Jejun/o - jejunum 39
  39. 39. GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM• Lapar/o – abdominal wall • Ptyal/o, sial/o – saliva• Lingu/o – tongue • Pyr/o – heat, fever, fire• Odont/o – tooth • Rect/o – rectum• Or/o – mouth • Sigmoid/o – sigmoid colon• Orth/o – straight, normal, • Staphyl/o – uvula correct • Stomat/o - mouth• Palat/o – palate• Peps/o - digestion• Peritone/o – peritoneum• Phag/o – eating, ingestion• Proct/o – rectum, anus 40
  40. 40. FILL IN THE BLANKS• Cholescystectomy - _______________________• Colonoscopy - ____________________________• Hepatomegaly - __________________________• Abdominocentesis - _______________________• Biligenesis – _____________________________• Colostomy - _____________________________• Enteroclysis - ____________________________• Esophagocele - ___________________________• Epigastric - ______________________________• Gingivitis - ______________________________• Laparoscope - ____________________________ 41
  41. 41. FILL IN THE BLANKS• Cholescystectomy Removal of the gallbladder• Colonoscopy Examination of the colon• Hepatomegaly Enlarged liver• Abdominocentesis To draw fluid from the abdomen• Biligenesis The production of bile• Colostomy Forming an opening between the colon and the abdominal wall• Enteroclysis Irrigation/washing of the intestines• Esophagocele Swelling/herniation of esophagus• Epigastric Pertaining to above the stomach• Gingivitis Inflammed gums• Laparoscope Instrument to examine abdomen 42
  42. 42. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM • Acanth/o – thorny, spiny • Actin/o – ray, radiation • Brom/o – odor • Caus/o, cauter/o – burn • Chrom/o – color • Chrys/o – gold • Cutane/o – skin • Derm/o, dermat/o – skin • Erythem/o – flushed, redness • Eschar/o – scab • Hidr/o, sud/o - sweat 43
  43. 43. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM• Lepid/o – flakes, scales• Lepr/o – leprosy• Onych/o, Ungu/o – nail• Papul/o – papule, pimple, acne • Py/o – pus• Perspir/o – breathe • Rhytid/o – wrinkle through • Seb/o – sebum• Pil/o, Trich/o – hair • Steat/o – fat• Prurit/o, Psor/o – itching • Ul/o – scar, scarring • Verruc/i – wart • Xer/o - dry 44
  44. 44. MATCH THE TERMS• Causalgia • Condition of fungal nails• Dermatopathy • Removal of a scab• Escharectomy • Burning pain• Onychomycosis • Skin inflammation• Lepidosis • Skin disease• Dermatitis • Condition of pimples, acne• Xeroderma • Condition of flaky skin• Papulosis • Excessive scarring• Verrucosis • Dry skin• Hyperulosis • Condition of warts 45
  45. 45. LYMPHATIC/IMMUNE SYSTEM• Adenoid/o – adenoids • Sarc/o – flesh• Axill/o – armpit • Septic/o –the immune• Immun/o – protection, response to a severe immune infection, putrefaction• Lien/o – spleen • Splen/o – spleen• Lymph/o – lymph • Tetan/o – tetanus• Lymphaden/o – lymph • Tonsill/o – tonsils nodes • Top/o – particular place or• Nod/o – knot area• Ple/o - more • Vaccin/o - vaccine 46
  46. 46. FILL IN THE BLANKS• Axillary lymphadenitis - ______________• Lymphedema - _____________________• Splenemphraxis - ___________________• Lymphangiophlebitis - ________________• Prophylaxis - _______________________• Septicemia - _______________________• Tonsillitis - ________________________• Lienomalacia - ______________________• Nodular - __________________________ 47
  47. 47. FILL IN THE BLANKS• Axillary – Inflammation of the lymph lymphadenitis nodes in the armpits• Lymphedema – Lymph swelling• Splenemphraxis – Spleen obstruction• Lymphangio- – Venous inflammation of the phlebitis lymphatic vessels• Prophylaxis – Prevention of a disease• Septicemia – Immune response to a severe blood infection• Tonsillitis – Inflammation of the tonsils• Lienomalacia – Softening of the spleen• Nodular – Pertaining to knots 48
  48. 48. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM• Asthen/o - weakness• Aux/o – growth, acceleration• Erg/o – work• Fasci/o –fascia, connective tissue• Fibr/o – fiber, fibrous• Flect/o, flex/o – bend• Kinesi/o – movement• Lei/o –smooth• Ligament/o – ligament• Muscul/o, my/o, myos/o – muscle 49
  49. 49. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM• Pale/o – old• Pyg/o – buttock• Rhabd/o - rod• Rhabdomy/o - skeletal muscle• Rot/o, Rotat/o – turn, rotate, revolve• Sthen/o – strength• Syndesm/o – ligament, connective tissue• Ten/o, Tenont/o – tendon• Therapeut/o – treatment• Ton/o – tone, tension 50
  50. 50. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM• Ankyl/o – stiff, crooked, bent• Arthr/o, Articul/o – joint• Brachi/o – arm• Burs/o – bursa• Calcane/o – heel• Carp/o – wrist• Centr/o – center• Cephal/o – head• Cervic/o – cervix, neck of the uterus• Cheir/o, Chir/o – hand• Chondr/o - cartilage 51
  51. 51. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM• Cleid/o – clavicle• Coccyg/o – coccyx, tailbone• Cost/o – rib• Cox/o – hip• Crani/o – skull• Cubit/o – elbow, forearm• Dactyl/o – digit of finger/toe• Dent/o – tooth, teeth• Faci/o – face• Femor/o – femur• Fibul/o – fibula, small calf bone• Geni/o – chin 52
  52. 52. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM• Gnath/o – jaw• Gnos/o – knowledge• Goni/o – angle• Gyr/o – circle, spiral• Humer/o – humerus, upper arm bone• Ili/o – ilium, bone in pelvis• Ischi/o – ischium, lower back hip bone• Kyph/o – humpback• Lamin/o – lamina, plate or layer• Lip/o – fat• Lord/o – curvature, bending• Lox/o – oblique, slanting• Lumb/o – lower back, loin 53
  53. 53. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM• Maxill/o – maxilla, upper jaw• Mel/o – limb, limbs• Om/o – shoulder• Opisth/o – backward, behind• Oste/o – bone• Patell/o – patella, knee cap• Ped/o, pod/o – foot• Pelv/i – pelvis• Perone/o – fibula, small calf bone• Petr/o – stone• Phalang/o – phalanges, finger/ toe bones 54
  54. 54. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM• Pub/o – pubis • Synov/o – synovia, joint• Rachi/o – spine fluid membrane• Sacr/o – sacrum, triangular • Tal/o – talus, bone bone @ bottom of spine & connecting leg to foot back of pelvic cavity • Tars/o – tarsus, foot bone,• Scapul/o – scapula, edge of eyelid shoulder blade • Tibi/o – tibia, large calf bone• Scoli/o – crooked, twisted • Vertebr/o – vertebra• Skelet/o – skeleton • Xiph/o – sword-shaped,• Spin/o – spinal cord, spine xiphoid• Spondyl/o – vertebrae, spinal cord• Stern/o – sternum 55
  55. 55. MATCH THE TERMSe‗ Bursitis a. Between ribsh‗ Hydrocephalus b. Pain in the buttocksj‗ Lipochondroma c. Cut into skulla‗ Intercostal d. Muscle weaknessd‗ Myasthenia e. Inflammation of bursab‗ Pygalgia f. Joint inflammationf‗ Arthritis g. Humpback/crooked spinec‗ Craniotomy h. Fluid in the headg‗ Kyphoscoliosis i. Cancer tumor in musclei‗ Myocarcinoma j. Tumor of fat & cartilage 56
  56. 56. NERVOUS SYSTEM• Astr/o – star • Heli/o – sun• Atel/o – incomplete, • Hydr/o – water, hydrogen imperfect • Keraun/o – lightning• Cerebell/o – cerebellum • Log/o – word, speech,• Cerebr/o – cerebrum, brain thought• Drom/o – running • Mening/o – meninges,• Encephal/o – brain membranes• Esthesi/o – sensation, • Ment/o – mind feeling • Myel/o – spinal cord, bone• Gangli/o, Ganglion/o – a marrow cyst on/around joint/tendon• Gli/o – glue, neuroglia 57
  57. 57. NERVOUS SYSTEM• Narc/o – numbness, • Psych/o – mind stupor • Psychr/o – cold• Neur/o – nerve • Radicul/o – nerve root• Phaner/o – visible, • Rhiz/o – root apparent • Schiz/o – split, division• Phob/o – fear, aversion • Somn/i – sleep• Phren/o – mind, • Syring/o – tube, fistula diaphragm• Picr/o – bitter • Tax/o – coordination• Pies/i – pressure • Tel/o – end• Pleg/o - paralyzed • Tephr/o – gray (ashen)• Poli/o – gray (matter) • Thanat/o – death• Por/o – opening, • Thec/o – sheath passageway • Vag/o – vagus nerve 58
  58. 58. FILL IN THE BLANKS1. Atelomyelia - ____________________________2. Cerebellospinal - _________________________3. Encephalomalacia - _______________________4. Esthesioneurosis - ________________________5. Gliocyte - _______________________________6. Hypnotic - _______________________________7. Insomnia - ______________________________8. Meningocele - ___________________________9. Myelocele - _____________________________10. Neurotripsy - ____________________________11. Vagolysis - ______________________________ 59
  59. 59. FILL IN THE BLANKS1. Atelomyelia − Imperfect spinal cord2. Cerebellospinal − Pertaining to cerebellum/spine3. Encephalomalacia − Softening of the brain4. Esthesioneurosis − Condition of nerve sensation5. Gliocyte − Cell glue6. Hypnotic − Pertaining to sleep7. Insomnia − Condition of not sleeping8. Meningocele − Membrane swelling/herniation9. Myelocele − Spinal cord swelling/herniation10. Neurotripsy − Nerve break down11. Vagolysis − Vagus nerve destruction 60
  60. 60. Reproductive System: FEMALE• Amni/o – sac around the embryo• Cervic/o –neck of the uterus, cervix• Chor/i – chorion, two layers that surround the embryo/amniotic sac and other membranes• Colp/o, vagin/o – vagina• Culd/o – cul-de-sac• Embry/o – embryo, fetus• Episi/o, vulv/o – vulva• Fet/o – fetus• Galact/o, lact/o – milk• Gravid/o - pregnancy• Gynec/o – woman 61
  61. 61. Reproductive System: FEMALE• Helc/o – ulcer• Hymen/o – hymen, membrane that surrounds the vaginal opening• Hyster/o, uter/o – uterus• Lecith/o – yolk, ovum• Mamm/o – mammary glands in breast• Mast/o – breast• Men/o – menses, menstruation• Metr/o – uterus• Nat/o – birth• O/o, ov/i, ov/o – egg, ovum• Obstetr/o – midwife 62
  62. 62. FEMALE Continued• Omphal/o – navel• Oophor/o, ovari/o – ovary• Perine/o – perineum, surface area between the pubic arch, the tailbone, & the legs (male or female)• Per/o – deformed, maimed• Sacchar/o – sugar• Salping/o – fallopian tubes• Terat/o – monster, wonder• Thel/o – nipple• Toc/o – childbirth, labor• Tub/o – tube• Viv/i – life, alive 63
  63. 63. MATCH THE TERMSd.‗ Amniocentesis a. hardening of the vulvah.‗ Cervicovaginitis b. milk dischargej.‗ Ovariocyesis c. study of new birtha.‗ Episiostenosis d. to puncture/tap into the wall of the uterus to draw outi.‗ Hysterosalpingooph amniotic fluid or-ectomy e. menstrual cessationb.‗ Lactorrhea f. seven pregnanciese.‗ Menopause g. excessive menstrual flowg.‗ Menorrhagia h. inflamed cervix and vaginac.‗ Neonatology i. removal of the uterus,f.‗ Septipara fallopian tubes, and ovaries j. pregnancy in an ovary 64
  64. 64. Reproductive System: MALE• Andr/o – male• Balan/o – glans penis, tip of the penis• Blenn/o - mucus• Crypt/o – hidden, concealed• Epididym/o – epididymis• Genit/o – reproduction• Gon/o – genitals, semen• Gonad/o – gonads, primary reproductive organs (testes- male, ovaries-female)• Inguin/o - groin• Olig/o – scanty, few, little• Orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o – testis 65
  65. 65. Reproductive System: MALE• Osche/o – scrotum• Phall/o – penis• Phim/o – muzzle• Prostat/o – prostate glands• Semen/i - semen• Sperm/o, spermat/o – sperm, spermatozoa• Test/o, testicul/o – testis• Vas/o – vas deferens, vessel• Venere/o – sexual intercourse• Vesicul/o – seminal vesicle, gland that produces 70% of the fluid that becomes semen 66
  66. 66. FILL IN THE BLANKS• Balanoblennorrhea - _________________• Gonorrhea - _______________________• Oligospermia - _____________________• Orchidynia - _______________________• Oscheoplasty - _____________________• Phallemphraxis - ____________________• Spermicide - _______________________• Vasectomy - _______________________ 67
  67. 67. FILL IN THE BLANKS1. Balanoblennorrhea 1. Mucus discharge from the2. Gonorrhea glans penis3. Oligospermia 2. Genital discharge4. Orchidynia 3. Pertaining to low sperm5. Oscheoplasty 4. Pain in the testis6. Phallemphraxis 5. Scrotum corrective surgery7. Spermicide 6. Penis obstruction8. Vasectomy 7. Sperm killer 8. Removal of vas deferens 68
  68. 68. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM• Alveol/o – alveolus • Lept/o – slender, thin,• Aspir/o, aspirat/o – inhaling, delicate removal • Lob/o – lobe• Blenn/o – mucus • Mediastin/o – mediastinum,• Bronch/o – bronchus, airway central area of thoracic cavity• Bronchiol/o – bronchiole • Nas/o – nose• Capn/o – carbon dioxide • Olfact/o, osm/o, osphresi/o –• Coni/o – dust sense of smell, odor, impulse • Ox/o – oxygen• Epiglott/o – epiglottis • Pector/o – chest• Lal/o – speech, babble • Phas/o – speech• Lampr/o – clear• Laryng/o – larynx 69
  69. 69. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM• Phon/o – voice, sound • Sept/o – partition• Phren/o – diaphragm, mind • Silic/o – silica, quartz• Pimel/o - fat, fatty • Sin/o, sinus/o – cavity, sinus• Pleur/o – pleura • Span/o – scanty, scarce• Pnea – breathing, breath • Spir/o – breath, breathing• Pneum/o, pneumon/o – • Steth/o – chest lung, air • Therm/o – heat• Pulmon/o – lung • Thorac/o, thorax/o – chest• Respir/o, respirat/o – • Trache/o – trachea breath, breathing• Rhin/o – nose 70
  70. 70. MATCH THE TERMSg. Apnea‗ a) condition of excessive carbon dioxidei. Alveolar atelectasis‗ b) to puncture/tap to draw fluid from then. Bronchospasm thoracic cavity‗ c) blood in the thoracic cavityf. Epiglottitis‗ d) trachea softeningl. Hemoptysis‗ e) instrument to examine the larynxc. Hemothorax‗ f) inflammation of the epiglottisa. Hypercapnia‗ g) without breathingj. Hypoxia‗ h) instrument to examine/listen to cheste. Laryngoscope‗ i) incomplete expansion of alveolik. Pneumonitis‗ j) low/deficient oxygenm. Spirometry‗ k) lung inflammationh. Stethoscope‗ l) spitting up blood m) to measure breathingb. Thoracentesis‗ n) airway contraction/twitchingd. Trachealmalacia‗ 71
  71. 71. URINARY SYSTEM• Albumin/o – albumin • Nephr/o – kidney• Azot/o – nitrogen, urea • Py/o – pus• Calci/o – calcium • Pyel/o – renal pelvis• Cali/o – calyx • Ren/o – kidney• Cupr/o - copper • Ur/o, urin/o – urine• Cyst / o – bladder • Ureter/o – ureter• Fusc/o – dark brown • Urethr/o – urethra• Glomerul/o - glomerulus • Uric/o – uric acid• Glyc/o, gluc/o – sugar • Vesic/o – urinary• Keton/o – ketones bladder• Lith/o – stone, calculus 72
  72. 72. FILL IN THE BLANKS• Cholecystectomy - ________________________• Cystitis - ________________________________• Hematuria - _____________________________• Nephrolithectomy - _______________________• Nephrology - ____________________________• Nephrosclerosis - _________________________• Pyuria - _________________________________• Renogastric - ____________________________• Ureterostomy - ___________________________• Urethratresia - ___________________________ 73
  73. 73. FILL IN THE BLANKS1. Cystectomy − Removal of the bladder2. Cystitis − Bladder/cyst inflammation3. Hematuria − Pertaining to blood in the urine4. Nephrolithectomy − Removal of kidney stones5. Nephrology − The study of the kidneys6. Nephrosclerosis − Hardening of the kidneys7. Pyuria − Pus in the urine8. Renogastric − Pertaining to the kidneys & stomach9. Ureterostomy − Forming a new opening for the ureter10. Urethratresia − Occlusion of the urethra 74
  74. 74. FIVE SENSES : HEARING• Acous/o, acoust/o - hearing• Audi/o, audit/o – hearing• Aur/o - ear• Aricul/o – ear• Cochle/o – snail-shaped, auditory portion of inner ear• Myring/o - eardrum• Ot/o – ear• Son/o - sound• Tympan/o - eardrum 75
  75. 75. FIVE SENSES: SMELL I smell trouble! • Nas/o – nose • Olfact/o – smell • Osm/o – smell • Ophresi/o - smell • Rhin/o - nose 76
  76. 76. FIVE SENSES: TOUCH• Haph/e – touch• Pselaphes/o – touch• Tact/o – touch• Thigm/o - touch 77
  77. 77. FIVE SENSES: TASTE • Gloss/o - tongue • Gustat/o – taste • Gust/o – taste • Lingu/o - tongue • Or/o – mouth • Stomat/o – mouth 78
  78. 78. FIVE SENSES: VISION• Blephar/o, palpebr/o – • Lacrim/o – tear/lacrimal eyelid duct• Conjunctiv/o – • Logad/o – whites of the conjunctiva, thin eyes membrane that covers • Ocul/o – eye the inside of the eyelid & • Ophry/o – eyebrow outside of eyeball• Cor/o, pupill/o – pupil • Ophthalm/o – eye• Corne/o – cornea • Opt/o – vision• Dacry/o – tear • Phac/o, phak/o – lens• Dipl/o – double • Retin/o – retina• Hygr/o – moisture • Scler/o – sclera• Ir/o, irid/o – iris • Stigmat/o – point• Kerat/o – cornea • Uve/o – uvea • Vitre/o - glassy 79
  79. 79. MATCH THE TERMS1. Acoustic a) Pain in the ear2. Myringosis b) Pertaining to the nose and pharynx3. Otodynia c) Condition of smelling4. Otorrhea d) Surgical repair/correction of the nose5. Nasopharyngeal e) Pertaining to hearing6. Osmosis f) Ear discharge7. Rhinoplasty g) Condition of the eardrum8. Rhinohemorrhagia h) Painful touch9. Haphephobia i) Pertaining to the tongue and epiglottis10. Haphalgia j) Drooping eyelid11. Thigmesthesia k) Excessive blood flow from the nose12. Glossoepiglottic l) Eye specialist13. Glossodynia m) Sensation of touch14. Stomatopathy n) Fear of being touched15. Blepharoptosis o) Double vision16. Conjunctivitis p) Tongue pain17. Diplopia q) Softening of the lens of the eye18. Opthalmologist r) Inflammation of the conjunctiva19. Phacomalacia s) Disease of the mouth 80
  80. 80. MATCH THE TERMS1. Acoustic a) Pain in the ear2. Myringosis b) Pertaining to the nose and pharynx3. Otodynia c) Condition of smelling4. Otorrhea d) Surgical repair/correction of the nose5. Nasopharyngeal e) Pertaining to hearing6. Osmosis f) Ear discharge7. Rhinoplasty g) Condition of the eardrum8. Rhinohemorrhagia h) Painful touch9. Haphephobia i) Pertaining to the tongue and epiglottis10. Haphalgia j) Drooping eyelid11. Thigmesthesia k) Excessive blood flow from the nose12. Glossoepiglottic l) Eye specialist13. Glossodynia m) Sensation of touch14. Stomatopathy n) Fear of being touched15. Blepharoptosis o) Double vision16. Conjunctivitis p) Tongue pain17. Diplopia q) Softening of the lens of the eye18. Opthalmologist r) Inflammation of the conjunctiva19. Phacomalacia s) Disease of the mouth 81
  81. 81. TERMS THAT DON’T FOLLOW THE RULES• Antispasmodic – drug agent that supresses involuntary contractions• Aphagia – difficulty or loss of the ability to swallow or eat• Sumptomatology – the study of symptoms• Perianal – pertaining to around the anus• Thrombus – a solid mass formed in the heart or vessels (blood clot)• Lithotomy – incision to remove a stone• Uremia – pertaining to urea in the blood• Emphysema – a pathologic accumulation of air in tissues or organs• Pyocele – collection of pus in a bodily cavity 82
  82. 82. TERMS THAT DON’T FOLLOW THE RULES• Pneumothorax – air in the chest / thorax• Diplegia – paralysis of like parts on both sides of the body• Leukemia – progressive, malignant disease of the blood forming organs, a type of cancer• Multipara – a woman who has had two or more births• Autodiagnosis – self diagnosis
  83. 83. TERMS THAT DON’T FOLLOW THE RULES• Contraindication – any condition that renders a treatment as improper or undesirable• Transposition – displacement of a viscus to the opposite side• Acute – having sudden severe symptoms, usually life- threatening• Angina – chest pain• Cellular – pertaining to cells• Deltoid – resembling a triangle, rotator cuff, muscle in shoulder
  84. 84. Questions?

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