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Sport development 
legacies from major 
events 
Legacy by osmosis? 
Danya Hodgetts 
Institute for Social Science and Healt...
Sport development 
Need for increased sport participation to 
address inactivity and obesity 
Increasing pressure to del...
Event impact and legacy 
Events have an effect on tourism and 
economic, physical and environment, 
social and cultural, ...
Event leveraging 
Trickle down benefits from the Olympics 
are not automatic 
Hindson et al., 1994: 22 
Link between $ a...
os·mo·sis noun (äs mō′sis, äz-) 
Transport of a 
substance across 
a cell membrane 
by diffusion; 
expenditure of 
energy ...
Photo courtesy of Harvie Alison Photography
Methods 
 Statistical analysis of membership 
 1990 – 2010 where possible 
 Data was examined at: 
 Club (Scarboro) 
...
Variables 
 Membership 
 Active 
 Junior 
 Total 
 Training 
 Surf Rescue Certificate 
 Bronze Medallion 
 Champio...
0 
2000 
4000 
6000 
8000 
10000 
12000 
14000 
16000 
1991 
1992 
1993 
1994 
1995 
1996 
1997 
1998 
1999 
2000 
2001 
2...
Analysis 
State Category 
Unadjusted† 
β B p 
Western 
Australia 
Active 0.78 1049.19 <.001*** 
Junior 0.77 2561.35 <.001*...
Analysis 
State Category 
Unadjusted† Adjusted‡ 
β B p β B p 
Western 
Australia 
Active 0.78 1049.19 <.001*** 0.10 131.52...
Analysis 
State Category 
Unadjusted† Adjusted‡ 
β B p β B p 
Western 
Australia 
Active 0.78 1049.19 <.001*** 0.10 131.52...
Results - Membership 
 Queensland Junior 
 1638 (β=0.34, F(5,13)=89.54, p=.003) 
 New South Wales Junior 
 -5892 (β=-0...
Results - Training 
 New South Wales Bronze 
 715 (β=0.57, F(6,13)=12.51, p=.022) 
 Victoria Bronze 
 405 (β=0.50, F(6...
Results - Championship 
Competitor entries 
 Western Australia 
 667 (β=1.23, F(6,8)=42.251, p=<.001) 
 South Australia...
Results - Accreditation 
 Queensland Coach Accreditation 
 138 (β=0.89, F(1,9)=33.626, p=<.001)
Photo courtesy of Harvie Alison Photography 
Discussion
Photo courtesy of Harvie Alison Photography 
Conclusion
References 
 Allen, J., O'Toole, W. J., McDonnell, W., & Harris, R. (2005). Festival and special event management (3rd ed...
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Sport development legacies from major events: Legacy by osmosis?

It is commonly believed that major sporting events provide ongoing benefits separate from infrastructure provision, including increased participation in the sport in question and physical activity in general. This is becoming an increasingly important aspect of hosting a major sporting event, with event organisers considering how a major event can benefit the development of the sport. However, there is little empirical research to support that such development occurs.

The Australian Surf Life Saving Championships (ASLSC) were held in Kurrawa, Queensland from 1995 – 2006. From 2007 – 2009, the event was held in Scarborough, Western Australia, which provides an opportunity to study the interactions between an event and sport in terms of legacy.

Regression analysis was conducted using membership statistics from Surf Life Saving Western Australia and its 28 individual clubs from 1990 to 2009. Membership Categories that may indicate changes in sport participation (active patrolling members, juniors, total membership, Bronze medallion awards, coaches, officials, competitor numbers, performance and media) were examined in Western Australia during this period. These variables were regressed against a dichotomous ‘dummy’ variable indicating event location and equivalent data from other Australian states.

There were no significant changes in any of the membership categories in Western Australia during the time Western Australia hosted the event when accounting for membership variation in the wider organisation. Significant changes were found for competitor numbers, performance and media.

The findings indicate that hosting the ASLSC event for three years at a location did not result in increases in participation in the host State – legacy did not occur by osmosis. This suggests that dedicated strategies need to be implemented by event hosts to leverage hosting the event into desired sport development outcomes.

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Sport development legacies from major events: Legacy by osmosis?

  1. 1. Sport development legacies from major events Legacy by osmosis? Danya Hodgetts Institute for Social Science and Health Research CQUniversity Dr Mitch Duncan, CQUniversity Prof Kerry Mummery, University of Alberta
  2. 2. Sport development Need for increased sport participation to address inactivity and obesity Increasing pressure to deliver broader social outcomes Coalter 2007; United Nations, 2003 Sporting events are attracting increased attention and government resources
  3. 3. Event impact and legacy Events have an effect on tourism and economic, physical and environment, social and cultural, and development of the sport itself Allen et al. 2005; Cashman 2002 Not sufficient evidence available to confirm or refute increased participation levels resulting from Olympic Games Veal & Toohey 2005, Weed Coren Fiore 2009
  4. 4. Event leveraging Trickle down benefits from the Olympics are not automatic Hindson et al., 1994: 22 Link between $ and medals, but not medals and participation Hogan and Nortan 2000 Benefits occur through an actively leveraged process Chalip, 2004
  5. 5. os·mo·sis noun (äs mō′sis, äz-) Transport of a substance across a cell membrane by diffusion; expenditure of energy is not required. Photo courtesy of Harvie Alison Photography
  6. 6. Photo courtesy of Harvie Alison Photography
  7. 7. Methods  Statistical analysis of membership  1990 – 2010 where possible  Data was examined at:  Club (Scarboro)  Metropolitan (Perth)  State (Western Australia)
  8. 8. Variables  Membership  Active  Junior  Total  Training  Surf Rescue Certificate  Bronze Medallion  Championship  Entries  Pointscore  Entries: Pointscore  Accreditation  Coach  Official Sotiriadou et al., 2008; Cashman, 2002
  9. 9. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Active Membership Year NSW Qld Vic WA Tas Analysis
  10. 10. Analysis State Category Unadjusted† β B p Western Australia Active 0.78 1049.19 <.001*** Junior 0.77 2561.35 <.001*** Total 0.81 7121.38 <.001***
  11. 11. Analysis State Category Unadjusted† Adjusted‡ β B p β B p Western Australia Active 0.78 1049.19 <.001*** 0.10 131.52 .32 Junior 0.77 2561.35 <.001*** 0.15 510.38 .29 Total 0.81 7121.38 <.001*** 0.05 428.63 .79
  12. 12. Analysis State Category Unadjusted† Adjusted‡ β B p β B p Western Australia Active 0.78 1049.19 <.001*** 0.10 131.52 .32 Junior 0.77 2561.35 <.001*** 0.15 510.38 .29 Total 0.81 7121.38 <.001*** 0.05 428.63 .79 Queensland Active 0.14 172.38 .57 -0.47 -592.60 .15 Junior 0.82 3997.58 <.001*** 0.34 1638.14 .003** Total 0.76 9413.21 <.001*** -0.01 -112.06 .95 New South Wales Active 0.79 4321.85 <.001*** 0.07 377.96 .66 Junior 0.61 8969.02 .006** -0.40 -5892.20 .016* Total 0.72 19815.15 <.001*** -0.07 -1877.48 .07 Victoria Active 0.76 1949.50 <.001*** -0.26 -66.83 .80 Junior 0.72 3567.40 .001** -0.18 -893.46 .24 Total 0.75 10105.08 <.001*** -0.02 -1877.48 .07 Tasmania Active 0.66 102.31 .002** 0.29 44.77 .36 Junior 0.84 366.00 <.001*** 0.24 101.99 .46 Total 0.91 808.83 <.001*** 0.56 496.82 .010* South Australia Total 0.83 2488.60 <.001*** 0.20 596.15 .37
  13. 13. Results - Membership  Queensland Junior  1638 (β=0.34, F(5,13)=89.54, p=.003)  New South Wales Junior  -5892 (β=-0.40, F(5,13)=44.53, p=.016)  Tasmania Total  497 (β=0.56, F(5,13)=16.69, p=.01)  Scarboro SLSC Total  -158 (β=-0.35, F(5,13)=48.30, p=.039)
  14. 14. Results - Training  New South Wales Bronze  715 (β=0.57, F(6,13)=12.51, p=.022)  Victoria Bronze  405 (β=0.50, F(6,13)=15.19, p=.033)
  15. 15. Results - Championship Competitor entries  Western Australia  667 (β=1.23, F(6,8)=42.251, p=<.001)  South Australia  -292 (β=-2.24, F(6,8)=7.095, p=.018)  Metropolitan Western Australia  406 (β=0.75, F(6,2)=202.21, p=.032) Pointscore  Western Australia  290 (β=0.82, F(1,8)=50.826, p=.033)
  16. 16. Results - Accreditation  Queensland Coach Accreditation  138 (β=0.89, F(1,9)=33.626, p=<.001)
  17. 17. Photo courtesy of Harvie Alison Photography Discussion
  18. 18. Photo courtesy of Harvie Alison Photography Conclusion
  19. 19. References  Allen, J., O'Toole, W. J., McDonnell, W., & Harris, R. (2005). Festival and special event management (3rd ed.). Queensland, Australia: John Wiley and Sons.  Calder, A. (2004). Work, rest and fatigue: survey of Surf Life Saving Officials at the National Championships in 2003. Officiating Australia, 4(1), 7.  Cashman, R. (2002). What is "Olympic Legacy?". Paper presented at the The Legacy of the Olympic Games 1984 - 2000, Lausanne.  Chalip, L. (2004). Beyond impact: a general model for sport event leverage. In B. Ritchie & D. Adair (Eds.), Sport Tourism: interrelationships, impacts and issues (pp. 226 - 252). Clevedon, UK: Channel View Publications.  Coalter, F. (2007). London Olympics 2012: `the catalyst that inspires people to lead more active lives'? The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 127(3), 109-110. doi: 10.1177/1466424007077342  Hindson, A., Gidlow, B., & Peebles, C. (1994). The "trickle-down" effect of top-level sport: myth or reality? A case-study of the Olympics. Australian Journal of Leisure & Recreation, 4(1), 16-24, 31.  Sotiriadou, K., Shilbury, D., & Quick, S. (2008). The attraction, retention/transition, and nurturing process of sport development: some Australian Evidence. Journal of Sport Management, 22(3), 247-272.  SportScotland. (2004). Curling success and its impact on participation. Research Report No. 92 Retrieved August 23, 2010, from http://www.sportscotland.org.uk/ChannelNavigation/Resources/TopicNavigation/Collections/Research/Curling+success +and+its+impact+on+participation.htm  United Nations. (2003). Sport as a means to promote education, health, development and peace Retrieved May 31, 2010, from http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N03/453/21/PDF/N0345321.pdf?OpenElement  Veal, A. J., & Toohey, K. (2005). Sport for All & the Legacy of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Paper presented at the Third International Event Management Research Conference, Sydney.  Weed, M., Coren, E., & Fiore, J. (2009). A systematic review of the evidence base for developing a physical activity and health legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games: Centre for Sport, Physical Education and Activity Research. Canterbury Christ Church University.

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