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Intro to Imperialism


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Intro to Imperialism

  1. 1. Introduction to Imperialism: A SPRITE Approach
  2. 2. Definition of Imperialism: <ul><li>Process by which one state, with superior military strength and more advanced technology, imposes its control over the land , resources , and population of a less developed region </li></ul><ul><li>Imperialism, in the context of our studies, runs from the 1880s - 1940s </li></ul>
  3. 3. Social <ul><li>Local rivalries/infighting reduced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(all equally ‘inferior’ and subjugated by Europeans) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations that people accept European ways </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. POLITICAL <ul><li>European countries competing to be most dominant (It’s a global competition!) </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Conference (1884): Europeans agreed to carve out African colonies </li></ul>
  5. 5. Political <ul><li>European Powers Used One of 4 Approaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COLONY (Direct Rule) : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO local control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euro. Country sends governor, military, bureaucrats to keep order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No intention of respecting or keeping local culture/traditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most associated with Germany, Portugal, France </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Political <ul><li>PROTECTORATE (Indirect Rule) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Make it look like they’re in charge” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>European governor “advises” local leaders, military, police carry out European policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretically respects/preserves local culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with British </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Spheres of Influence / Company Rule <ul><li>Sphere of Influence : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most associated with CHINA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans control port cities , only interested in controlling TRADE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Company Rule : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corportations given charter (gov’t permission) to control lands as part of company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t gets money in exchange for company charter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t does not need to spend time and money to control land, gets money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AKA Joint-Stock Companies , example: India </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Religious <ul><li>Christian Missionaries are early explorers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach locals European languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce European medicine, religion, schooling, technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubling cultural traditions eradicated (infanticide, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Intellectual <ul><li>“ White Man’s Burden ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans had responsibility to “save” locals from “savage” ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sense of Adventure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring exotic places = 19th century “extreme” activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Europeans want their country to win! </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Technological <ul><li>Shipping Shortcuts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suez Canal (connected Mediterranean to Indian Ocean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panama Canal (connected Atlantic, Pacific Oceans) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport Technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamships (allow rivers to go against strong currents) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trains (allow transport of huge amt stuff inland, and to cost) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow Europeans to fully infiltrate lands, control much more than before (not just coast) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Technological <ul><li>Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>Weaponry (bolt-action rifle, Maxim Gun) </li></ul><ul><li>Communication (telegraph, telephone) </li></ul><ul><li>Disease: </li></ul><ul><li>European Diseases (smallpox) </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Diseases (malaria) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Economic <ul><li>Industrial Revolution = $$$$ </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisements used “exotic” elements to sell goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans get: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Captive customers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Europeans get : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-time jobs extracting nat. resources for nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endless supply of industrial goods to buy </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Geographic Regions: <ul><li>Africa: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carved up by Berlin Conference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independents: Ethiopia, Liberia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Raj (rule) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asia: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carved up by Europeans, but not as extreme as Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent: Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacific Islands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to natural resources (Germany = chemicals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where America had its colonies (Hawaii, Philippines) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latin America: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unofficially Dominated by U.S. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Taking Stock… <ul><li>What elements of Imperialism were positive? </li></ul><ul><li>What elements of Imperialism were negative? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Which Makes the World Look Like This… It was said: “The Sun Never Set on the British Empire.” Why?
  16. 16. Part 2: Motives of Imperialism in Pictures <ul><li>Motives of Imperialism: </li></ul><ul><li>Political/Territorial </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory/Adventure </li></ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul><ul><li>As you see these images, which apply? Why? </li></ul>