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Indiaoverview Part12008


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Indiaoverview Part12008

  1. 1. India Overview A Supplement to Gandhi
  2. 2. Part 1: Introduction to India
  3. 3. Demographics <ul><li>Over 500,000 villages </li></ul><ul><li>Over 2000 cities </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>80% Hindu, 13% Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Today: 1.13 billion people </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>90% Muslim, 2% Hindu </li></ul><ul><li>Today: 168 million people </li></ul><ul><li>1920: 300 million </li></ul>
  4. 4. Caste System <ul><li>Hindu society was divided into major castes or classes </li></ul><ul><li>People are born into a caste and upward mobility is next to impossible – people only married within their caste </li></ul><ul><li>Caste determined job within community </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to Hindu belief of reincarnation – live well and follow rules, then you will be reborn into a higher caste </li></ul>
  5. 5. Major Hindu Castes <ul><li>Brahmins – Priests and scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Kshatriyas – Warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Baishyas – Farmers and merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Shudras – Laborers and serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Untouchables – People who were below the caste system and completed the most undesirable of jobs </li></ul>
  6. 6. British East India Company <ul><li>Became leading commercial power by 1757 </li></ul><ul><li>Exploited Indian indigo, cotton, and tea </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled India, politically and economically (called raj or &quot;rule&quot;) </li></ul>
  7. 7. British East India Company <ul><li>Made alliances with different tribes and ethnic groups, employed sepoys (Indian soldiers) </li></ul><ul><li>Considered the &quot;jewel in the crown&quot; of the British Empire </li></ul>
  8. 8. Direct Control <ul><li>1857 Sepoy Rebellion takes place </li></ul><ul><li>Started with misunderstanding that new bullets had animal grease on them (sacred to Hindus and unclean to Muslims) </li></ul><ul><li>British government saw uprising as a sign that Indians could cause more problems in the future and took direct control of government </li></ul>
  9. 9. Domination <ul><li>English and Western ideas promoted as elite – including education and dress </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted domestic industries, forced Indians to purchase British goods </li></ul>
  10. 10. Part 2: Indian National Congress
  11. 11. Indian National Congress <ul><li>1885 – Met for the first time to bring more Indians into the British controlled government </li></ul><ul><li>Over then next thirty years they began to push for home rule and then independence </li></ul>
  12. 12. Indian National Congress <ul><li>Party members generally were English educated and did not represent the 350 million Indians who mostly worked in the fields of rural India </li></ul><ul><li>Many did not separate the Congress members in their minds from the British because they advocated similar ideas (i.e. industrialization), but under Indian rule </li></ul>
  13. 13. Part 3: Hindu / Muslim Tensions
  14. 14. Map of the Muslim World c.A.D.900
  15. 15. Map of the Muslim World c.A.D. 1100
  16. 16. Map of the Muslim World c.A.D. 1500
  17. 17. Muslim Conquests <ul><li>711 CE – Muslim invaders take Lower Sind </li></ul><ul><li>1200 CE - Delhi Sultanate in Northern India </li></ul><ul><li>1500 CE – Mughal Empire established </li></ul><ul><li>1750 CE – British East India Company begins control </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ongoing Conflict <ul><li>Muslim invasions were bloody conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu temples razed, Mosques built in place </li></ul><ul><li>Violent uprisings by Hindus throughout Muslim rule </li></ul><ul><li>British used differences to help maintain control </li></ul><ul><li>Bitterness between the two lead to great violence during the independence process </li></ul>