W5 yi all_(286)+(414)=(700)-1

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This is a great presentation prepared by W5YI, that may be accompanied by classroom instruction for the training of new operators.

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W5 yi all_(286)+(414)=(700)-1

  1. 1. Technician Licensing ClassAbout Ham RadioPresented by
  2. 2. 2Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)About Ham Radio• Call Signs• Control• Mind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  3. 3. 3Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  4. 4. 4About Ham Radio•T1A1 The Amateur Radio Service is intended for persons who areinterested in radio technique solely with a personal aim andwithout pecuniary interest.There is no minimum age requirement for holding an FCC Amateur Radio License.
  5. 5. 5About Ham Radio• T1A2 The agency that regulates and enforces the rules for theAmateur Radio Service in the United States is the FCC.• T1C10 You may operate to transmit after you pass the examinationelements required for your first amateur radio license as soon asyour name and call sign appear in the FCC’s ULS database.
  6. 6. 6About Ham Radio• T1C8 The normal term for an FCC-issued primary station/operatorlicense grant is ten years.• T1C9 The grace period following theexpiration of an amateur licensewithin which the license may berenewed is two years.
  7. 7. 7About Ham Radio• T1C11 If your license has expired and is still within the allowablegrace period, you may not continue to operate to transmit until theULS database shows that the license has been renewed.• T1A10 The FCC Part 97 definition of an amateur station is a station inan Amateur Radio Service consisting of the apparatus necessaryfor carrying on radio communications.A control operatorMake sure the FCC has issued your call signbefore you go on the air for the first time.
  8. 8. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014About Ham RadioElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  9. 9. T1A01 For whom is the Amateur RadioService intended?A. Persons who have messages to broadcast tothe publicB. Persons who need communications for theactivities of their immediate family members,relatives and friendsC. Persons who need two-way communicationsfor personal reasonsD. Persons who are interested in radio techniquesolely with a personal aim and withoutpecuniary interest
  10. 10. T1A02 What agency regulates and enforces therules for the Amateur Radio Service inthe United States?A. FEMAB. The ITUC. The FCCD. Homeland Security
  11. 11. T1C10 How soon may you operate a transmitter on anamateur service frequency after you pass theexamination required for your first amateur radiolicense?A. ImmediatelyB. 30 days after the test dateC. As soon as your name and call sign appear inthe FCC’s ULS databaseD. As soon as you receive your license in the mailfrom the FCC
  12. 12. T1C08 What is the normal term for an FCC-issuedprimary station/operator license grant?A. Five yearsB. LifeC. Ten yearsD. Twenty years
  13. 13. T1C09 What is the grace period following theexpiration of an amateur license withinwhich the license may be renewed?A. Two yearsB. Three yearsC. Five yearsD. Ten years
  14. 14. T1C11 If your license has expired and is still within theallowable grace period, may you continue to operate atransmitter on amateur service frequencies?A. No, transmitting is not allowed until the ULSdatabase shows that the license has beenrenewedB. Yes, but only if you identify using the suffix"GP"C. Yes, but only during authorized netsD. Yes, for up to two years
  15. 15. T1A10 What is the FCC Part 97 definition of anamateur station?A. A station in an Amateur Radio Serviceconsisting of the apparatus necessary forcarrying on radio communicationsB. A building where Amateur Radio receivers,transmitters, and RF power amplifiers areinstalledC. Any radio station operated by a non-professionalD. Any radio station for hobby use
  16. 16. Technician Licensing ClassCall SignsPresented by
  17. 17. 17Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham RadioCall Signs• Control• Mind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  18. 18. 18Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  19. 19. Call Signs•T1F3 An amateur station is required to transmit its assigned call signat least every 10 minutes during and at the end of a contact.
  20. 20. 20Call Signs• T1C2 W3ABC is a valid US amateur radio station call sign.Amateur Radio call sign on license plates.Ham radio call signs, for the U.S, begin with A, K, N,or W. They also have a single numbers 0 through 9.
  21. 21. 21Call SignsThe number in your new call sign is determined by your permanent mailing address.
  22. 22. 22Call Signs• T2B9 Use of a phonetic alphabet is the method encouraged by theFCC when identifying your station when using phone.A Alpha H Hotel O Oscar V VictorB Bravo I India P Papa W WhiskeyC Charlie J Juliet Q Quebec X X-rayD Delta K Kilo R Romeo Y YankeeE Echo L Lima S Sierra Z ZuluF Foxtrot M Mike T TangoG Golf N November U Uniform
  23. 23. 23Call Signs• T1C1 A call sign that has a single letter in both the prefix and suffixis used for a Special Event.• W5P N8C K3M• T8C6 The purpose of a temporary "1 by 1" format (letter-number-letter) assigned call sign is for operations in conjunction with anactivity of special significance to the amateur community.• T1F12 At least 4 persons are required to be members of a club for aclub station license to be issued by the FCC.
  24. 24. 24Call Signs•T1F1 The type of identification being used when identifying a stationon the air as “Race Headquarters” is a Tactical call.• Tactical call signs ARE permitted as long as they don’t sound like a US or foreign call sign.•T1F2 When using tactical identifiers you must transmit your stationsFCC-assigned call sign every ten minutes.
  25. 25. 25Call Signs• T1F4 Phone emission in the English language is an acceptable methodof station identification when operating in the phone sub-band.•T1F6 KL7CC stroke W3, KL7CC slant W3 and KL7CC slash W3 areacceptable formats of self-assigned indicators when identifying usinga phone transmission. KL7CC/W3 … Stroke KL7CC/W3 … Slant KL7CC/W3 … SlashTesting your radio?Give your call signin English.All of these choices arecorrect.
  26. 26. 26Call Signs• T1F7 When appending a self-assigned call sign indicator thereare restrictions. It must not conflict with any other indicatorspecified by the FCC rules or with any call sign prefix assignedto another country.• T1B1 The ITU (International Telecommunications Union) is aUnited Nations agency for information and communicationtechnology issues.
  27. 27. 27Call Signs• T1B2 North American amateur stations are located in ITU Region 2NorthAmericaITURegion 2
  28. 28. 28Call Signs• T1C3 Communications incidental to the purposes of the amateurservice and remarks of a personal character are types ofinternational communications permitted by an FCC-licensedamateur station.• T1D1 FCC-licensed amateur are prohibited from exchangingcommunications with any country whose administration hasnotified the ITU that it objects to communications with FCC-licensed amateur stations.• T1F11 FCC rules authorize the transmission of non-emergency thirdparty communications to foreign stations whose governmentpermits such communications
  29. 29. 29Call Signs• T1C6 In addition to places where the FCC regulatescommunications, an FCC-licensed amateur station can transmitfrom any vessel or craft that is documented or registered in theUnited States.• T1C4 You are allowed to operate your amateur station in a foreigncountry when the foreign country authorizes it.• T1D2 Only during an Armed Forces Day Communications Test mayan FCC-licensed amateur station exchange messages with a U.S.military station.
  30. 30. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014Call SignsElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  31. 31. T1F03 When is an amateur station required totransmit its assigned call sign?A. At the beginning of each contact, and every 10minutes thereafterB. At least once during each transmissionC. At least every 15 minutes during and at the endof a contactD. At least every 10 minutes during and at the endof a contact
  32. 32. T1C02 Which of the following is a valid USamateur radio station call sign?A. KMA3503B. W3ABCC. KDKAD. 11Q1176
  33. 33. T2B09 Which of the following methods isencouraged by the FCC whenidentifying your station when using phone?A. Use of a phonetic alphabetB. Send your call sign in CW as well as voiceC. Repeat your call sign three timesD. Increase your signal to full power whenidentifying
  34. 34. T1C01 Which type of call sign has a single letterin both the prefix and suffix?A. VanityB. SequentialC. Special eventD. In-memoriam
  35. 35. temporary "1 by 1" format (letter-number- letter) call signassigned?A. To designate an experimental stationB. To honor a deceased relative who was aradio amateurC. For operations in conjunction with anactivity of special significance to theamateur communityD. All of these choices are correct
  36. 36. T1F12 How many persons are required to bemembers of a club for a club stationlicense to be issued by the FCC?A. At least 5B. At least 4C. A trustee and 2 officersD. At least 2
  37. 37. T1F01 What type of identification is being usedwhen identifying a station on the air as“Race Headquarters”?A. Tactical callB. Self-assigned designatorC. SSIDD. Broadcast station
  38. 38. T1F02 When using tactical identifiers, howoften must your station transmit thestation’s FCC-assigned call sign?A. Never, the tactical call is sufficientB. Once during every hourC. Every ten minutesD. At the end of every communication
  39. 39. T1F04 Which of the following is an acceptablemethod of station identification whenoperating in the phone sub-band?A. Any language recognized by the United NationsB. Any language recognized by the ITUC. The English languageD. English, French, or Spanish
  40. 40. T1F06 Which of the following formats of a self-assigned indicator is acceptable whenidentifying using a phone transmission?A. KL7CC stroke W3B. KL7CC slant W3C. KL7CC slash W3D. All of these choices are correct
  41. 41. T1F07 Which of the following restrictions applywhen appending a self-assigned callsign indicator?A. It must be more than three letters and less thanfive lettersB. It must be less than five lettersC. It must start with the letters AA through AL, K, N,or W and be not less than two characters or morethan five characters in lengthD. It must not conflict with any other indicatorspecified by the FCC rules or with any call signprefix assigned to another country
  42. 42. T1B01 What is the ITU ?A. An agency of the United States Department ofTelecommunications ManagementB. A United Nations agency for information andcommunication technology issuesC. An independent frequency coordination agencyD. A department of the FCC
  43. 43. T1B02 North American amateur stations arelocated in which ITU region?A. Region 1B. Region 2C. Region 3D. Region 4
  44. 44. T1C03 What types of internationalcommunications are permitted by anFCC-licensed amateur station?A. Communications incidental to the purposes ofthe amateur service and remarks of a personalcharacterB. Communications incidental to conductingbusiness or remarks of a personal natureC. Only communications incidental to contestexchanges, all other communications areprohibitedD. Any communications that would be permitted onan international broadcast station
  45. 45. T1D01 With which countries are FCC-licensedamateur stations prohibited fromexchanging communications?A. Any country whose administration has notified theITU that it objects to such communicationsB. B. Any country whose administration has notifiedthe United Nations that it objects to suchcommunicationsC. C. Any country engaged in hostilities with anothercountryD. D. Any country in violation of the War Powers Actof 1934
  46. 46. T1F11 To which foreign stations do the FCC rulesauthorize the transmission of non-emergencythird party communications?A. Any station whose government permits suchcommunicationsB. Those in ITU Region 2 onlyC. Those in ITU Regions 2 and 3 onlyD. Those in ITU Region 3 only
  47. 47. T1C06 From which of the following may an FCC-licensedamateur station transmit, in addition to placeswhere the FCC regulates communications?A. From within any country that belongs to theInternational Telecommunications UnionB. From within any country that is a member of theUnited NationsC. From anywhere within in ITU Regions 2 and 3D. From any vessel or craft located in internationalwaters and documented or registered in theUnited States
  48. 48. T1C04 When are you allowed to operate youramateur station in a foreign country?A. When the foreign country authorizes itB. When there is a mutual agreement allowingthird party communicationsC. When authorization permits amateurcommunications in a foreign languageD. When you are communicating with non-licensed individuals in another country
  49. 49. T1D02 On which of the following occasions may anFCC-licensed amateur station exchangemessages with a U.S. military station?A. During an Armed Forces DayCommunications TestB. During a Memorial Day CelebrationC. During an Independence DaycelebrationD. During a propagation test
  50. 50. Technician Licensing ClassControlPresented by
  51. 51. 51Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call SignsControl• Mind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  52. 52. 52Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  53. 53. 53Control• T1E1 An amateur station must have a control operator only whenthe station is transmitting.When youoperate yourstation you arethe “controloperator,” andyou are at thestation’s“control point.”
  54. 54. 54Control• T1E2 Only a person for whom an amateur operator/primary stationlicense grant appears in the FCC database or who is authorizedfor alien reciprocal operation is eligible to be the controloperator of an amateur station.• T8B1 Any amateur whose license privileges allow them to transmiton the satellite uplink frequency may be the control operator of astation communicating through an amateur satellite or spacestation.• T1E3 The station licensee must designate the station controloperator.• T1E7 The control operator and the station licensee are equallyresponsible for the proper operation of the station when thecontrol operator is not the station licensee.• Both of you are responsible for the transmissions
  55. 55. 55Control• T1E4 The class of operator license held by the control operatordetermines the transmitting privileges of an amateur station.When you operatefrom another ham’sstation, you useyour license classprivileges.
  56. 56. 56Control• T1F8 A Technician Class licensee maynever be the control operator of astation operating in an exclusiveExtra Class operator segment of theamateur bands.• You must stay within your TechnicianClass band privileges.• T1E5 The location at which the controloperator function is performed isconsidered the amateur stationcontrol point.The control point is the spot whereyou have complete capability toturn your equipment on or off.
  57. 57. 57Control• T1E9 Local control is the type of control being used whentransmitting using a handheld radio.• T1E6 Automatic control is the type of control that is permissible forthe control operator to be at a location other than the controlpoint.• T1E10 Remote control is the type of control used when the controloperator is not at the station location but can indirectlymanipulate the operating adjustments of a station.• T1E8 Automatic control is the type of control being used for arepeater when the control operator is not present at a controlpoint.• T1E11 The FCC presumes the station licensee to be the controloperator of an amateur station unless documentation to thecontrary is in the station records.• Another licensee runs your gear, log who it was.
  58. 58. 58Control• T1D8 The control operator of an amateur station may receivecompensation for operating a station when the communication isincidental to classroom instruction at an educational institution.• T1F10 The control operator of the originating station is accountableshould a repeater inadvertently retransmit communications thatviolate the FCC rules.School teacherscan receive theirregular pay whenteaching aboutham radio
  59. 59. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014ControlElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  60. 60. T1E01 When must an amateur station have acontrol operator?A. Only when the station is transmittingB. Only when the station is being locallycontrolledC. Only when the station is being remotelycontrolledD. Only when the station is being automaticallycontrolled
  61. 61. T1E02 Who is eligible to be the controloperator of an amateur station?A. Only a person holding an amateur servicelicense from any country that belongs to theUnited NationsB. Only a citizen of the United StatesC. Only a person over the age of 18D. Only a person for whom an amateuroperator/primary station license grant appearsin the FCC database or who is authorized foralien reciprocal operation
  62. 62. T8B01 Who may be the control operator of astation communicating through an amateursatellite or space station?A. Only an Amateur Extra Class operatorB. A General Class licensee or higher licensee whohas a satellite operator certificationC. Only an Amateur Extra Class operator who isalso an AMSAT memberD. Any amateur whose license privileges allowthem to transmit on the satellite uplinkfrequency
  63. 63. T1E03 Who must designate the station controloperator?A. The station licenseeB. The FCCC. The frequency coordinatorD. The ITU
  64. 64. T1E07 When the control operator is not thestation licensee, who is responsible forthe proper operation of the station?A. All licensed amateurs who are present at theoperationB. Only the station licenseeC. Only the control operatorD. The control operator and the station licenseeare equally responsible
  65. 65. T1E04 What determines the transmittingprivileges of an amateur station?A. The frequency authorized by the frequencycoordinatorB. The class of operator license held by the stationlicenseeC. The highest class of operator license held byanyone on the premisesD. The class of operator license held by thecontrol operator
  66. 66. T1F08 When may a Technician Class licensee be the controloperator of a station operating in an exclusive ExtraClass operator segment of the amateur bands?A. NeverB. On Armed Forces DayC. As part of a multi-operator contest teamD. When using a club station whose trustee isan Extra Class operator licensee
  67. 67. T1E05 What is an amateur station control point?A. The location of the station’s transmittingantennaB. The location of the station transmittingapparatus.C. The location at which the control operatorfunction is performedD. The mailing address of the station licensee
  68. 68. T1E09 What type of control is being used whentransmitting using a handheld radio?A. Radio controlB. Unattended controlC. Automatic controlD. Local control
  69. 69. T1E06 Under which of the following types of control isit permissible for the control operator to be ata location other than the control point?A. Local controlB. Automatic controlC. Remote controlD. Indirect control
  70. 70. T1E10 What type of control is used when the control operatoris not at the station location but can indirectlymanipulate the operating adjustments of a station?A. LocalB. RemoteC. AutomaticD. Unattended
  71. 71. T1E08 What type of control is being used for arepeater when the control operator isnot present at a control point?A. Local controlB. Remote controlC. Automatic controlD. Unattended
  72. 72. T1E11 Who does the FCC presume to be the control operatorof an amateur station, unless documentation to thecontrary is in the station records?A. The station custodianB. The third party participantC. The person operating the station equipmentD. The station licensee
  73. 73. T1D08 When may the control operator of anamateur station receive compensationfor operating the station?A. When engaging in communications on behalf oftheir employerB. When the communication is incidental toclassroom instruction at an educationalinstitutionC. When re-broadcasting weather alerts during aRACES netD. When notifying other amateur operators of theavailability for sale or trade of apparatus
  74. 74. T1F10 Who is accountable should a repeaterinadvertently retransmit communications thatviolate the FCC rules?A. The control operator of the originating stationB. The control operator of the repeaterC. The owner of the repeaterD. Both the originating station and the repeaterowner
  75. 75. Technician Licensing ClassMind the RulesPresented by
  76. 76. 76Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call Signs• ControlMind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  77. 77. 77Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  78. 78. 78Mind the Rules• T1A3 Part 97 of the FCC rules contains the rules and regulationsgoverning the Amateur Radio Service.FCC governs AmateurRadio ServicePart 97 Amateur Radio regulations arecontained in Title-47 Telecommunication.
  79. 79. 79Mind the Rules• T1D6 Transmissions that contain obscene or indecent words orlanguage are prohibited.• Absolutely not allowed = indecent and obscene language• T2A11 FCC rules regarding power levels used in the amateur bands statethat an amateur must use the minimum transmitter power necessary tocarry out the desired communication.Use the minimum amount of power output tomake contact with another stationAmateur acceptedsimplex frequencies
  80. 80. 80Mind the Rules• T1D10 Transmissions intended for reception by the general publicis the meaning of the term broadcasting in the FCC rules for theamateur services.• T1D9 Amateur stations are authorized to transmit signals related tobroadcasting, program production, or news gathering, assumingno other means is available only where such communicationsdirectly relate to the immediate safety of human life or protectionof property.• Protecting lives and property• T1D11 Brief transmissions to make station adjustments is a type ofcommunications permitted in the Amateur Radio Service.
  81. 81. 81Mind the Rules• T1A4 Any transmission that seriously degrades, obstructs, orrepeatedly interrupts a radio communication service operating inaccordance with the Radio Regulations is defined by the FCC asharmful interference.• T1D3 The transmission of codes or ciphers is allowed to hide themeaning of a message transmitted by an amateur station onlywhen transmitting control commands to space stations or radiocontrol craft.SpacestationRadiocontrolcraft
  82. 82. 82Mind the Rules• T1D4 The only time an amateur station is authorized to transmitmusic is when it is incidental to an authorized retransmission ofmanned spacecraft communications.• T1D5 Amateur radio operators may use their stations to notify otheramateurs of the availability of equipment for sale or trade whenthe equipment is normally used in an amateur station and suchMusic in thebackground atyour station isnot permitted.
  83. 83. 83Mind the Rules• T1F13 Any time upon request by an FCC representative is when thestation licensee must make the station and its records availablefor FCC inspection.• T1C7 Revocation of the station license or suspension of theoperator license may result when correspondence from the FCCis returned as undeliverable because the grantee failed toprovide the correct mailing address.The FCC has suspended two Amateur Radio licenses because the holdershad failed to maintain correct mailing addresses in the Commissionslicensee database.Special Counsel in the FCC Spectrum Enforcement Division RileyHollingsworth wrote Larry L. Smith, KC7LJR, of Middleton, Idaho,and Larry J. Maniag, KD7JTG, of Payson, Arizona, on June 28, 2006 toinform them the FCC was suspending their Technician tickets for theremainder of their license terms or until each licensee provides a validmailing address.http://www.arrl.org/news/stories/2006/07/18/100/
  84. 84. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014Mind the RulesElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  85. 85. T1A03 Which part of the FCC rules containsthe rules and regulations governing theAmateur Radio Service?A. Part 73B. Part 95C. Part 90D. Part 97
  86. 86. T1D06 Which of the following types oftransmissions are prohibited?A. Transmissions that contain obscene or indecentwords or languageB. Transmissions to establish one-waycommunicationsC. Transmissions to establish model aircraftcontrolD. Transmissions for third party communications
  87. 87. T2A11 What are the FCC rules regardingpower levels used in the amateur bands?A. Always use the maximum power allowed toensure that you complete the contactB. An amateur may use no more than 200 wattsPEP to make an amateur contactC. An amateur may use up to 1500 watts PEP onany amateur frequencyD. An amateur must use the minimum transmitterpower necessary to carry out the desiredcommunication
  88. 88. T1D10 What is the meaning of the term broad-casting in the FCC rules for the amateurservices?A. Two-way transmissions by amateur stationsB. Transmission of musicC. Transmission of messages directed only toamateur operatorsD. Transmissions intended for reception by thegeneral public
  89. 89. T1D09 Under which of the following circumstances are amateurstations authorized to transmit signals related tobroadcasting, program production, or news gathering,assuming no other means is available?A. Only where such communications directlyrelate to the immediate safety of human life orprotection of propertyB. Only when broadcasting communications to orfrom the space shuttle.C. Only where noncommercial programming isgathered and supplied exclusively to theNational Public Radio networkD. Only when using amateur repeaters linked tothe Internet
  90. 90. T1D11 Which of the following types ofcommunications are permitted in theAmateur Radio Service?A. Brief transmissions to make station adjustmentsB. Retransmission of entertainment programming from acommercial radio or TV stationC. Retransmission of entertainment material from apublic radio or TV stationD. Communications on a regular basis that couldreasonably be furnished alternatively through otherradio services
  91. 91. T1A04 Which of the following meets the FCCdefinition of harmful interference?A. Radio transmissions that annoy users of a repeaterB. Unwanted radio transmissions that cause costly harm toradio station apparatusC. That which seriously degrades, obstructs, or repeatedlyinterrupts a radio communication service operating inaccordance with the Radio RegulationsD. Static from lightning storms
  92. 92. T1D03 When is the transmission of codes or ciphersallowed to hide the meaning of a messagetransmitted by an amateur station?A. Only during contestsB. Only when operating mobileC. Only when transmitting control commands tospace stations or radio control craftD. Only when frequencies above 1280 MHz areused
  93. 93. T1D04 What is the only time an amateur station isauthorized to transmit music?A. When incidental to an authorizedretransmission of manned spacecraftcommunicationsB. When the music produces no spuriousemissionsC. When the purpose is to interfere with an illegaltransmissionD. When the music is transmitted above 1280 MHz
  94. 94. T1D05 When may amateur radio operators use theirstations to notify other amateurs of theavailability of equipment for sale or trade?A. When the equipment is normally used inan amateur station and such activity is notconducted on a regular basisB. When the asking price is $100.00 or lessC. hen the asking price is less than itsappraised valueD. When the equipment is not the personalproperty of either the station licensee orthe control operator or their closerelatives
  95. 95. T1F13 When must the station licensee makethe station and its records available forFCC inspection?A. Any time upon request by an official observerB. Any time upon request by an FCC representativeC. 30 days prior to renewal of the station licenseD. 10 days before the first transmission
  96. 96. T1C07 What may result when correspondence from the FCC isreturned as undeliverable because the grantee failed toprovide the correct mailing address?A. Fine or imprisonmentB. Revocation of the station license orsuspension of the operator licenseC. Require the licensee to be re-examinedD. A reduction of one rank in operator class
  97. 97. Technician Licensing ClassTech FrequenciesPresented by
  98. 98. 98Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call Signs• Control• Mind the RulesTech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  99. 99. 99Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  100. 100. 100Tech Frequencies• T5C6 RF is theabbreviation thatrefers to radiofrequency signalsof all types.• Term “RF” refers toradio frequency
  101. 101. 101Tech Frequencies• T3A7 Electromagnetic waves carry radio signals betweentransmitting and receiving stations.• T3B3 Electric and magnetic fields are the two components of aradio wave.• T3B4 Radio waves travel through free space at the speed of light.• T3B11 The approximate velocity of a radio wave as it travelsthrough free space is 300,000,000 meters per second.• T5C5 Hertz is the unit of frequency.They are at right angles toeach other and together are called“electromagnetic” radio waves
  102. 102. 102Tech Frequencies• T5B7 If a frequency readout calibrated in megahertz shows a reading of3.525 MHz, it would show 3525 kHz if it were calibrated in kilohertz.• T3B1 The name for the distance a radio wave travels during onecomplete cycle is wavelength. Keywords: distance and wavelength• T3B7 The property of radio waves often used to identify the differentfrequency bands is the approximate wavelength.• Wavelength of the band: 2 meters; 20 meters; 40 meters, etcCarrier, Frequency,Cycle, andWavelength
  103. 103. 103Tech Frequencies• T3B5 The wavelength of a radio wave relates to its frequencyinversely, as the wavelength gets shorter the frequency increases.• Higher in frequency the shorter the distance between each wave.• T3B6 The formula for converting frequency to wavelength in metersis the wavelength in meters equals 300 divided by frequency inmegahertz. (One answer ends with word Megahertz)Conversions Between Wavelength and FrequencyConverting Frequencyto WavelengthConverting Wavelengthto FrequencyTo find wavelength ( ) inmeters, if you know fre3quency(f) in megahertz (MHz) Solve:To find frequency (f) inmegahertz (MHz), if you knowwavelength ( ) in meters,Solve:(meters) =300f(MHz)300(meters)f(MHz) =Elmer Tip
  104. 104. 104Tech Frequencies• T3B10 The frequency range referred to as HF is 3 MHz to 30 MHz.• T3B8 The frequency limits of the VHF spectrum are 30 MHz to 300 MHz.2-meters 70 CM
  105. 105. 105Tech Frequencies• T1B3 52.525 MHz is a frequency is within the 6 meter band .• T1B4 146.520 MHz is a frequency is within the 2 meter band.• T1B10 The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 1.25 meter bands available toTechnician Class operators have mode-restricted sub-bands.• 6 meters 50.0 – 50.1 No FM!• 2 meters 144.0 – 144.1 No FM!• 1.25 meters 222.0 – 222.34 No FM!6-Meter Wavelength Band Privileges2-Meter Wavelength Band PrivilegesCW50 MHz 50.1 MHz 54 MHz144 MHz 144.1 MHzCW148 MHz52.525 MHz146.52 MHz
  106. 106. 106Tech Frequencies• T1B11 In the mode-restricted sub-bands at 50.0 to 50.1 MHz and 144.0to 144.1 MHz only CW emission modes are permitted.• CW only on these two sub-bands• T1B7 Transmitting on 223.500 MHz, you are using the 1.25 meter band.• T8D5 Data emission modes may be used by a Technician Classoperator between 219 and 220 MHz.• 219 to 220 MHz for point-to-point digital message forwarding• T3B9 The frequency limits of the UHF spectrum are 300 MHz to 3000MHz.• UHF is 300 MHz to 3000 MHz1.25-Meter Wavelength Band Privileges222 MHz 225 MHz223.50 MHz219 MHz 220 MHz
  107. 107. 107Tech Frequencies•T1B5 443.350 is a 70 cm frequency authorized to a TechnicianClass license holder operating in ITU Region 2.• 443.350 MHz is in the upper third of the 70 cm band• T2A2 The national calling frequency is 446.000 MHz for FM simplexoperation on the 70 cm band.•T1B6 With a Technician Class operator license you are authorizedto operate on 1296 MHz in the 23 cm band.70-CM Wavelength Band Privileges23-CM Wavelength Band Privileges420 MHz446.000 MHz450 MHz443.350 MHz430 MHz 440 MHz1240 MHz 1300 MHz1296 MHz
  108. 108. 108Tech Frequencies• T2A10 A band plan, beyond the privileges established by the FCC, is avoluntary guideline for using different modes or activities within anamateur band.50.000-50.100: CW - No voice modes allowed per FCC section §97.30550.060-50.080: CW/Beacon Sub band50.100-50.300: Phone (SSB), etc. (no FM voice)50.100-50.125: DX Window50.300-50.600: All modes (simplex)50.600-50.800: Digital modes (e.g. Packet)50.800-51.000: Radio Control (R/C)51.000-51.100: "Pacific DX window" (SSB/CW)51.120-51.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs (areas w/500 KHz split)51.500-51.600: Simplex FM, 6 channels: 51.500, 51.520, 51.540,51.560, 51.580, and 51.60051.620-51.980: 6 Meter FM Repeater Outputs (areas w/500 KHzsplit)52.000-52.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs (for 500 KHz and 1 MHzsplit)Note: 52.525, 52.400, 52.040, and 52.020 are widely used forsimplex operation with 52.525 being the "national simplex"frequency.52.500-52.980: 6 Meter FM Repeater Outputs53.000-53.480: 6 Meter FM Repeater Inputs and Repeater Outputs
  109. 109. Tech FrequenciesValid AmateurRadio bands aredifferent from ‘BandPlans’ which are avoluntary guidanceover and above thebands authorized bythe FCC.
  110. 110. 110Tech Frequencies• T1B8 When an amateur frequency band is said to be available on asecondary basis, amateurs may not cause harmful interference toprimary users.• T1C5 If you are operating on the 23 cm band and learn that you areinterfering with a radio location station outside the United Statesyou must stop operating or take steps to eliminate the harmfulinterference.• T1B9 You should not set your transmit frequency to be exactly atthe edge of an amateur band or sub-band:so that modulation sidebands do not extend beyondthe band edge;to allow for calibration error in the transmitterfrequency display;and to allow for transmitter frequency drift.All of these choices are correct
  111. 111. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014Tech FrequenciesElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  112. 112. T5C06 What is the abbreviation that refers toradio frequency signals of all types?A. AFB. HFC. RFD. VHF
  113. 113. T3A07 What type of wave carries radio signals betweentransmitting and receiving stations?A. ElectromagneticB. ElectrostaticC. Surface acousticD. Magnetostrictive
  114. 114. T3B03 What are the two components of a radio wave?A. AC and DCB. Voltage and currentC. Electric and magnetic fieldsD. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation
  115. 115. T3B04 How fast does a radio wave travel throughfree space?A. At the speed of lightB. At the speed of soundC. Its speed is inversely proportional to itswavelengthD. Its speed increases as the frequencyincreases
  116. 116. T3B11 What is the approximate velocity of aradio wave as it travels through free space?A. 3000 kilometers per secondB. 300,000,000 meters per secondC. 300,000 miles per hourD. 186,000 miles per hour
  117. 117. T5C05 What is the unit of frequency?A. HertzB. HenryC. FaradD. Tesla
  118. 118. T5B07 If a frequency readout calibrated in megahertzshows a reading of 3.525 MHz, what would it showif it were calibrated in kilohertz?A. 0.003525 kHzB. 35.25 kHzC. 3525 kHzD. 3,525,000 kHz
  119. 119. T3B01 What is the name for the distance a radiowave travels during one complete cycle?A. Wave speedB. WaveformC. WavelengthD. Wave spread
  120. 120. T3B07 What property of radio waves is often usedto identify the different frequency bands?A. The approximate wavelengthB. The magnetic intensity of wavesC. The time it takes for waves to travel onemileD. The voltage standing wave ratio ofwaves
  121. 121. T3B05 How does the wavelength of a radio waverelate to its frequency?A. The wavelength gets longer as thefrequency increasesB. The wavelength gets shorter as thefrequency increasesC. There is no relationship betweenwavelength and frequencyD. The wavelength depends on thebandwidth of the signal
  122. 122. T3B06 What is the formula for convertingfrequency to wavelength in meters?A. Wavelength in meters equals frequency inhertz multiplied by 300B. Wavelength in meters equals frequency inhertz divided by 300C. Wavelength in meters equals frequency inmegahertz divided by 300D. Wavelength in meters equals 300 dividedby frequency in megahertz
  123. 123. T3B10 What frequency range is referred to as HF?A. 300 to 3000 MHzB. 30 to 300 MHzC. 3 to 30 MHzD. 300 to 3000 kHz
  124. 124. T3B08 What are the frequency limits of the VHFspectrum?A. 30 to 300 kHzB. 30 to 300 MHzC. 300 to 3000 kHzD. 300 to 3000 MHz
  125. 125. T1B03 Which frequency is within the 6meter band?A. 49.00 MHzB. 52.525 MHzC. 28.50 MHzD. 222.15 MHz
  126. 126. T1B04 Which amateur band are you usingwhen your station is transmitting on146.52 MHz?A. 2 meter bandB. 20 meter bandC. 14 meter bandD. 6 meter band
  127. 127. T1B10 Which of the bands available toTechnician Class operators have mode-restricted sub-bands?A. The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 70 cm bandsB. The 2 meter and 13 cm bandsC. The 6 meter, 2 meter, and 1.25 meter bandsD. The 2 meter and 70 cm bands
  128. 128. T1B11 What emission modes are permitted inthe mode-restricted sub-bands at 50.0 to50.1 MHz and 144.0 to 144.1 MHz?A. CW onlyB. CW and RTTYC. SSB onlyD. CW and SSB
  129. 129. T1B07 What amateur band are you using if youare transmitting on 223.50 MHz?A. 15 meter bandB. 10 meter bandC. 2 meter bandD. 1.25 meter band
  130. 130. T8D05 Which of the following emissionmodes may be used by a Technician Classoperator between 219 and 220 MHz?A. Spread spectrumB. DataC. SSB voiceD. Fast-scan television
  131. 131. T3B09 What are the frequency limits of the UHFspectrum?A. 30 to 300 kHzB. 30 to 300 MHzC. 300 to 3000 kHzD. 300 to 3000 MHz
  132. 132. T1B05 Which 70 cm frequency is authorized toa Technician Class license holderoperating in ITU Region 2?A. 53.350 MHzB. 146.520 MHzC. 443.350 MHzD. 222.520 MHz
  133. 133. T2A02 What is the national calling frequency for FMsimplex operations in the 70 cm band?A. 146.520 MHzB. 145.000 MHzC. 432.100 MHzD. 446.000 MHz
  134. 134. T1B06 Which 23 cm frequency is authorized to aTechnician Class operator license?A. 2315 MHzB. 1296 MHzC. 3390 MHzD. 146.52 MHz
  135. 135. T2A10 What is a band plan, beyond theprivileges established by the FCC?A. A voluntary guideline for using different modesor activities within an amateur bandB. A mandated list of operating schedulesC. A list of scheduled net frequenciesD. A plan devised by a club to use a frequencyband during a contest
  136. 136. T1B08 What do the FCC rules mean when anamateur frequency band is said to beavailable on a secondary basis?A. Secondary users of a frequency haveequal rights to operateB. Amateurs are only allowed to use thefrequency at nightC. Amateurs may not cause harmfulinterference to primary usersD. Secondary users are not allowed onamateur bands
  137. 137. T1C05 What must you do if you are operating on the23 cm band and learn that you are interferingwith a radiolocation station outside the US?A. Stop operating or take steps to eliminate theharmful interferenceB. Nothing, because this band is allocatedexclusively to the amateur serviceC. Establish contact with the radiolocation stationand ask them to change frequencyD. Change to CW mode, because this would notlikely cause interference
  138. 138. T1B09 Why should you not set your transmitfrequency to be exactly at the edge ofan amateur band or sub-band?A. To allow for calibration error in thetransmitter frequency displayB. So that modulation sidebands do notextend beyond the band edgeC. To allow for transmitter frequency driftD. All of these choices are correct
  139. 139. Technician Licensing ClassYour First RadioPresented by
  140. 140. 140Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call Signs• Control• Mind the Rules• Tech FrequenciesYour First Radio• Going On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  141. 141. 141Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  142. 142. 142Your First Radio• T4B4 Quick access to a favorite frequency on your transceiver canbe done by storing the frequency in a memory channel.• T9A4 A disadvantage of the "rubber duck" antenna supplied withmost handheld radio transceivers is that it does not transmit orreceive as effectively as a full-sized antenna.With a transceiver (HT)like one of these, you canhold your ham station inthe palm of your hand.
  143. 143. 143Your First Radio• T9A7 A good reason not to use a"rubber duck" antenna insideyour car is that signals can besignificantly weaker than whenit is outside of the vehicle.• T7A10 An RF power amplifierincreases the low-power outputfrom a handheld transceiver.Modern dual- and tri-bandhandheld transceivers likethese have amazing built-incapabilities that make hamradio easy, fun, and portableVHF/UHFPowerAmplifier
  144. 144. 144Your First Radio• T8A4 FM is the type of modulation most commonly used for VHFand UHF voice repeaters.• T8A9 The approximate bandwidth of a VHF repeater FM phonesignal is between 5 and 15 kHz.• T8A2 FM is the type of modulation most commonly used for VHFpacket radio transmissions.• T4A1 Concerning the microphone connectors on amateurtransceivers, some connectors include push-to-talk and voltagesfor powering the microphone.Push to talk buttonConnectorVHF/UHFTransceiver
  145. 145. 145Your First RadioT4A2 A set of headphones could be used in place of a regularspeaker to help you copy signals in a noisy area.
  146. 146. 146Your First RadioT4A3 Preventing voltage fluctuations from reaching sensitive circuitsis a good reason to use a regulated power supply forcommunications equipment.Jetstream JTPS30MRegulated Power SupplyMFJ-412513.8VDC@22Amp
  147. 147. 147Your First Radio• T8A3 SSB is the type of voice modulation most often used for long-distance or weak signal contacts on the VHF and UHF bands.• T8A7 The primary advantage of single sideband over FM for voicetransmissions is that SSB signals have narrower bandwidth.• SSB uses less bandwidth than FM signals.• T8A6 The sideband normally used for 10 meter HF, VHF and UHFsingle-sideband communications is upper sideband.• Upper sideband is always used on VHF & UHF
  148. 148. 148Your First Radio• T7A6 A transverter is a device that takes the output of a low-powered28 MHz SSB exciter and produces a 222 MHz output signal.WB6NOA using a 10GHz transverter thatdown converts thereceived signal to144 MHz into hisweak-signal, multi-mode radio.Multi-mode radio10 GHz DishTransverter
  149. 149. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014Your First RadioElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  150. 150. T4B04 What is a way to enable quick access to afavorite frequency on your transceiver?A. Enable the CTCSS tonesB. Store the frequency in a memorychannelC. Disable the CTCSS tonesD. Use the scan mode to select the desiredfrequency
  151. 151. T9A04 What is a disadvantage of the "rubberduck" antenna supplied with mosthandheld radio transceivers?A. It does not transmit or receive as effectivelyas a full-sized antennaB. It transmits a circularly polarized signalC. If the rubber end cap is lost it will unravelvery quicklyD. All of these choices are correct
  152. 152. T9A07 What is a good reason not to use a "rubberduck" antenna inside your car?A. Signals can be significantly weaker thanwhen it is outside of the vehicleB. It might cause your radio to overheatC. The SWR might decrease, decreasingthe signal strengthD. All of these choices are correct
  153. 153. T7A10 What device increases the low-poweroutput from a handheld transceiver?A. A voltage dividerB. An RF power amplifierC. An impedance networkD. A voltage regulator
  154. 154. T8A04 Which type of modulation is mostcommonly used for VHF and UHFvoice repeaters?A. AMB. SSBC. PSKD. FM
  155. 155. T8A09 What is the approximate bandwidth of aVHF repeater FM phone signal?A. Less than 500 HzB. About 150 kHzC. Between 5 and 15 kHzD. Between 50 and 125 kHz
  156. 156. T8A02 What type of modulation is most commonlyused for VHF packet radio transmissions?A. FMB. SSBC. AMD. Spread Spectrum
  157. 157. T4A01 Which of the following is true concerningthe microphone connectors on amateurtransceivers?A. All transceivers use the samemicrophone connector typeB. Some connectors include push-to-talkand voltages for powering themicrophoneC. All transceivers using the sameconnector type are wired identicallyD. Un-keyed connectors allow anymicrophone to be connected
  158. 158. T4A02 What could be used in place of a regularspeaker to help you copy signals in a noisyarea?A. A video displayB. A low pass filterC. A set of headphonesD. A boom microphone
  159. 159. T4A03 Which is a good reason to use a regulatedpower supply for communicationsequipment?A. It prevents voltage fluctuations fromreaching sensitive circuitsB. A regulated power supply has FCCapprovalC. A fuse or circuit breaker regulates thepowerD. Power consumption is independent ofload
  160. 160. T8A03 Which type of voice modulation is mostoften used for long-distance or weak signalcontacts on the VHF and UHF bands?A. FMB. AMC. SSBD. PM
  161. 161. T8A07 What is the primary advantage of singlesideband over FM for voice transmissions?A. SSB signals are easier to tuneB. SSB signals are less susceptible tointerferenceC. SSB signals have narrower bandwidthD. All of these choices are correct
  162. 162. T8A06 Which sideband is normally used for 10meter HF, VHF and UHF single-sidebandcommunications?A. Upper sidebandB. Lower sidebandC. Suppressed sidebandD. Inverted sideband
  163. 163. T7A06 What device takes the output of a low-powered 28 MHz SSB exciter and producesa 222 MHz output signal?A. High-pass filterB. Low-pass filterC. TransverterD. Phase converter
  164. 164. Technician Licensing ClassGoing On The Air!Presented by
  165. 165. 165Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call Signs• Control• Mind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First RadioGoing On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  166. 166. 166Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Intereference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  167. 167. 167Going On The Air!Block diagram of abasic receiverBlock diagram of abasic transmitter
  168. 168. 168Going On The Air!• T4B2 The keypad or VFO knob can be used to enter the operatingfrequency on a modern transceiver.• VFO – Variable Frequency Oscillator• T4B3 The purpose of the squelch control on a transceiver is to mutereceiver output noise when no signal is being received.• Squelch control silences the background noiseVFO knobsquelch controlsquelch controlMic Keypad
  169. 169. 169Going On The Air!• T2B3 Carrier squelch describes the muting of receiver audiocontrolled solely by the presence or absence of an RF signal.• T2B1 Simplex communication is the term used to describe an amateurstation that is transmitting and receiving on the same frequency.• No offset frequency used for simplex like with a repeaterTransmittingFrequency:446.00 MHzReceivingFrequency446.00 MHzOne WayReceivingFrequency146.52 MHzTransmittingFrequency:146.52 MHzOne wayXcvr #1 Xcvr #2 Xcvr #3 Xcvr #4
  170. 170. 170Going On The Air!• T2A6 When making on-air transmissions to test equipment orantennas an amateur operator must properly identify thetransmitting station.• All transmissions must be identified• T2A7 When making a test transmission a station identification isrequired at least every ten minutes during the test and at the end.• Just like normal ID requirements for a QSO• T2A8 The procedural signal "CQ" means calling any station.• T2A5 When responding to a call of CQ you should transmit theother station’s call sign followed by your call sign.• W5YI this is K3DIO
  171. 171. 171Going On The Air!• T2A4 An appropriate way to call another station on a repeater ifyou know the other stations call sign is to say the stations callsign then identify with your call sign.• W2HLD this is K3DIO• T3A1 Should another operator reports that your stations 2 metersignals were strong just a moment ago, but now they are weak ordistorted, try moving a few feet, as random reflections may becausing multi-path distortion.• T3A6 Picket fencing is the term commonly used to describe therapid fluttering sound sometimes heard from mobile stations thatare moving while transmitting.
  172. 172. 172Going On The Air!• T2B8 The proper course of action to take if your station’stransmission unintentionally interferes with another station is toproperly identify your transmission and move to a differentfrequency.• T2B10 QRM is the "Q" signal used to indicate that you are receivinginterference from other stations.• T2B11 QSY is the "Q" signal used to indicate that you are changingfrequency.
  173. 173. 173173Going On The Air!Something is causing interferenceI am troubled by static/noise.I am troubled by static/noise.I am running low power.I am running low power.I am going off the air.I am going off the air.Who is calling me?Who is calling me?Your signal is fading.Your signal is fading.I received the message.I received the message.I will communicate with ________ directly.I will communicate with ________ directly.I am changing frequency to _____.I am changing frequency to _____.My location is _______.My location is _______.QRMQRNQRPQRZQSBQSLQSOQSYQTHQRT
  174. 174. 174Going On The Air!• T8C3 Contesting is a popular operating activity that involves contacting asmany stations as possible during a specified period of time.Field Day Every June Enjoyed By Hams the World Over
  175. 175. 175Going On The Air!T8C4 A good procedure when contacting another station in a radiocontest is to send only the minimum information needed for properidentification and the contest exchange.Chit chat is great fornormal QSO’s, but notfor contests.Contesting needs yourcall sign and info forcontest only.
  176. 176. 176Going On The Air!• T8C5 A grid locator is a letter-number designator assigned to ageographic location.
  177. 177. 177Going On The Air!• T3A2 UHF signals are often more effective from inside buildingsthan VHF signals as the shorter wavelength allows them to moreeasily penetrate the structure of buildings.UHF signals are shortenough in wavelength topermit bouncing aroundinside buildings andpenetrating of walls.
  178. 178. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014Going On The Air!Element 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  179. 179. T4B02 Which of the following can be used to enter theoperating frequency on a modern transceiver?A. The keypad or VFO knobB. The CTCSS or DTMF encoderC. The Automatic Frequency ControlD. All of these choices are correct
  180. 180. T4B03 What is the purpose of the squelch controlon a transceiver?A. To set the highest level of volumedesiredB. To set the transmitter power levelC. To adjust the automatic gain controlD. To mute receiver output noise when nosignal is being received
  181. 181. T2B03 Which of the following describes the muting ofreceiver audio controlled solely by thepresence or absence of an RF signal?A. Tone squelchB. Carrier squelchC. CTCSSD. Modulated carrier
  182. 182. T2B01 What is the term used to describe anamateur station that is transmitting andreceiving on the same frequency?A. Full duplex communicationB. Diplex communicationC. Simplex communicationD. Half duplex communication
  183. 183. T2A06 What must an amateur operator dowhen making on-air transmissions totest equipment or antennas?A. Properly identify the transmitting stationB. Make test transmissions only after 10:00 p.m.local timeC. Notify the FCC of the test transmissionD. State the purpose of the test during the testprocedure
  184. 184. T2A07 Which of the following is true whenmaking a test transmission?A. Station identification is not required if thetransmission is less than 15 secondsB. Station identification is not required if thetransmission is less than 1 wattC. Station identification is required only if yourstation can be heardD. Station identification is required at least everyten minutes during the test and at the end
  185. 185. T2A08 What is the meaning of the proceduralsignal "CQ"?A. Call on the quarter hourB. A new antenna is being tested (no stationshould answer)C. Only the called station should transmitD. Calling any station
  186. 186. T2A05 What should you transmit whenresponding to a call of CQ?A. CQ followed by the other station’s call signB. Your call sign followed by the other station’scall signC. The other station’s call sign followed by yourcall signD. A signal report followed by your call sign
  187. 187. T2A04 What is an appropriate way to call anotherstation on a repeater if you know the otherstations call sign?A. Say "break, break" then say the stations callsignB. Say the stations call sign then identify with yourcall signC. Say "CQ" three times then the other stationscall signD. Wait for the station to call "CQ" then answer it
  188. 188. T3A01 What should you do if another operator reportsthat your stations’ 2 meter signals were strong justa moment ago, but now they are weak or distorted?A. Change the batteries in your radio to adifferent typeB. Turn on the CTCSS toneC. Ask the other operator to adjust hissquelch controlD. Try moving a few feet, as randomreflections may be causing multi-pathdistortion
  189. 189. T3A06 What term is commonly used to describe therapid fluttering sound sometimes heard frommobile stations that are moving while transmitting?A. Flip-floppingB. Picket fencingC. Frequency shiftingD. Pulsing
  190. 190. T2B08 What is the proper course of action if yourstation’s transmission unintentionally interfereswith another station?A. Rotate your antenna slightlyB. Properly identify your transmission andmove to a different frequencyC. Increase powerD. Change antenna polarization
  191. 191. T2B10 What is the "Q" signal used to indicatethat you are receiving interference fromother stations?A. QRMB. QRNC. QTHD. QSB
  192. 192. T2B11 What is the "Q" signal used to indicatethat you are changing frequency?A. QRUB. QSYC. QSLD. QRZ
  193. 193. T8C03 What popular operating activityinvolves contacting as many stations aspossible during a specified period of time?A. ContestingB. Net operationsC. Public service eventsD. Simulated emergency exercises
  194. 194. T8C04 Which of the following is goodprocedure when contactinganother station in a radio contest?A. Be sure to sign only the last two letters ofyour call if there is a pileup calling thestationB. Work the station twice to be sure that youare in his logC. Send only the minimum informationneeded for proper identification and thecontest exchangeD. All of these choices are correct
  195. 195. T8C05 What is a grid locator?A. A letter-number designator assigned toa geographic locationB. A letter-number designator assigned toan azimuth and elevationC. An instrument for neutralizing a finalamplifierD. An instrument for radio directionfinding
  196. 196. T3A02 Why are UHF signals often more effectivefrom inside buildings than VHF signals?A. Change the batteries in your radio to adifferent typeB. The shorter wavelength allows them tomore easily penetrate the structure ofbuildingsC. This is incorrect; VHF works better thanUHF inside buildingsD. UHF antennas are more efficient thanVHF antennas
  197. 197. Technician Licensing ClassRepeatersPresented by
  198. 198. 198Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call Signs• Control• Mind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  199. 199. 199Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  200. 200. 200RepeatersBefore you press the PTT switch, LISTEN tomake sure the frequency is clear for use.And when you get your license, listen for a week ona repeater to get the feel for how to communicate.
  201. 201. 201Repeaters• T1F9 A Repeater station is the type of amateurstation that simultaneously retransmits thesignal of another amateur station on adifferent channel or channels.• T1D7 Amateur station are authorized toautomatically retransmit the radio signals ofother amateur stations when the signals arefrom an auxiliary, repeater, or space station.A repeater: Nice clean,neat, and compact.HandHeld Mobile/BaseStationRepeater
  202. 202. 202Repeaters• T4B11 The difference between the repeaters transmit and receivefrequencies describes the common meaning of the term “repeateroffset”.• T2A1 The most common repeater frequency offset in the 2 meter band isplus or minus 600 kHz.• T2A3 Plus or minus 5 MHz is a common repeater frequency offset in the70 cm band.• T2B4 Common problems that cause you to be able to hear but notaccess a repeater even when transmitting with the proper offset:The repeater receiver requires audio burst for accessThe repeater receiver requires a CTCSS tone for access• CTCSS – Continuous Tone Control Squelch SystemThe repeater receiver may require a DCS tone sequence for access• DCS – Digital Code SquelchAll of these choices are correct.
  203. 203. 203RepeatersDallas, Tx 442.025UHF RepeaterK5TITMcKinney, Tx 442.575UHF RepeaterN5GIMcKinney, Tx 145.350VHF RepeaterN5GIWhat repeaters really look like.
  204. 204. 20460 milesOffset+ 600 kHzInput Freq147.960 MHzOutput Freq147.360 MHzRepeaters2-meter bandPL 131.9Miami, FLN4OCA
  205. 205. 20560 milesOffset- 600 kHzInput Freq146.280 MHzOutput Freq146.880 MHzRepeaters2-meter bandPL 107.2Chicago, ILK9GFY
  206. 206. 20650 milesOffset+ 5.0 MHzInput Freq447.275MHzOutput Freq442.275 MHz70-centimeter bandRepeatersPL 100.0Dallas, TXN5ZW
  207. 207. 20750 milesOffset- 5.0 MHzInput Freq443.375MHzOutput Freq448.375 MHz70-centimeter bandRepeatersPL 131.9Wilmington, DEW3DRA
  208. 208. 208Repeaters• T2B2 CTCSS is the term used to describe the use of a sub-audibletone transmitted with normal voice audio to open the squelch of areceiver. (CTCSS – Continuous Tone-Coded Squelch System)• Also called a PL tone.• T2A9 A brief statement of saying your call sign is often used inplace of "CQ" to indicate that you are listening on a repeater.CTCSS Tones In Use67.0 Hz 94.8 Hz 131.8 Hz 171.3 Hz 203.5 Hz69.3 Hz 97.4 Hz 136.5 Hz 173.8 Hz 206.5 Hz71.9 Hz 100.0 Hz 141.3 Hz 177.3 Hz 210.7 Hz74.4 Hz 103.5 Hz 146.2 Hz 179.9 Hz 218.1 Hz77.0 Hz 107.2 Hz 151.4 Hz 183.5 Hz 225.7 Hz79.7 Hz 110.9 Hz 156.7 Hz 186.2 Hz 229.1 Hz82.5 Hz 114.8 Hz 159.8 Hz 189.9 Hz 233.6 Hz85.4 Hz 118.8 Hz 162.2 Hz 192.8 Hz 241.8 Hz88.5 Hz 123.0 Hz 165.5 Hz 196.6 Hz 250.3 Hz91.5 Hz 127.3 Hz 167.9 Hz 199.5 Hz 254.1 Hz
  209. 209. 209Repeaters•T1A8 A Frequency coordinator recommends transmit/receive channelsand other parameters for auxiliary and repeater stations.• T1A9 Amateur operators in a local or regional area that are eligible tobe auxiliary or repeater stations select a frequency coordinator.• T1A11 An auxiliary station transmits signals over the air from a remotereceive site to a repeater for retransmission.• T1F5 Call sign identification is required for a station transmitting phonesignals by sending the call sign using CW or phone emission.Repeaters can identify with a voicemessage announcing their call sign,or use Morse code to send out theirstation call letters
  210. 210. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014RepeatersElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  211. 211. T1F09 What type of amateur station simultaneouslyretransmits the signal of another amateurstation on a different channel or channels?A. Beacon stationB. Earth stationC. Repeater stationD. Message forwarding station
  212. 212. T1D07 When is an amateur station authorized toautomatically retransmit the radiosignals of other amateur stations?A. When the signals are from an auxiliary, beacon,or Earth stationB. When the signals are from an auxiliary,repeater, or space stationC. When the signals are from a beacon, repeater,or space stationD. When the signals are from an Earth, repeater,or space station
  213. 213. T4B11 Which of the following describes the commonmeaning of the term “repeater offset”?A. The distance between the repeater’stransmit and receive antennasB. The time delay before the repeater timerresetsC. The difference between the repeater’stransmit and receive frequenciesD. The maximum frequency deviationpermitted on the repeater’s input signal
  214. 214. T2A01 What is the most common repeaterfrequency offset in the 2 meter band?A. Plus 500 kHzB. Plus or minus 600 kHzC. Minus 500 kHzD. Only plus 600 kHz
  215. 215. T2A03 What is a common repeater frequencyoffset in the 70 cm band?A. Plus or minus 5 MHzB. Plus or minus 600 kHzC. Minus 600 kHzD. Plus 600 kHz
  216. 216. T2B04 Which of the following common problems might causeyou to be able to hear but not access a repeater evenwhen transmitting with the proper offset?A. The repeater receiver requires audio tone burstfor accessB. The repeater receiver requires a CTCSS tonefor accessC. The repeater receiver may require a DCS tonesequence for accessD. All of these choices are correct
  217. 217. T2B02 What is the term used to describe the use of asub-audible tone transmitted with normal voiceaudio to open the squelch of a receiver?A. Carrier squelchB. Tone burstC. DTMFD. CTCSS
  218. 218. T2A09 What brief statement is often used inplace of "CQ" to indicate that you arelistening on a repeater?A. Say "Hello test" followed by your call signB. Say your call signC. Say the repeater call sign followed by your callsignD. Say the letters "QSY" followed by your call sign
  219. 219. T1A08 Which of the following entities recommendstransmit/receive channels and otherparameters for auxiliary and repeater stations?A. Frequency Spectrum ManagerB. Frequency CoordinatorC. FCC Regional Field OfficeD. International Telecommunications Union
  220. 220. T1A09 Who selects a frequency coordinator?A. The FCC Office of Spectrum Management andCoordination PolicyB. The local chapter of the Office of NationalCouncil of Independent FrequencyCoordinatorsC. Amateur operators in a local or regional areawhose stations are eligible to be auxiliary orrepeater stationsD. Regional field Office
  221. 221. T1A11 Which of the following stations transmitssignals over the air from a remotereceive site to a repeater for retransmission?A. Beacon stationB. Relay stationC. Auxiliary stationD. Message forwarding station
  222. 222. T1F05 What method of call sign identification isrequired for a station transmitting phonesignals?A. Send the call sign followed by the indicator RPTB. Send the call sign using CW or phone emissionC. Send the call sign followed by the indicator RD. Send the call sign using only phone emission
  223. 223. Technician Licensing ClassEmergency!Presented by
  224. 224. 224Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call Signs• Control• Mind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!• RepeatersEmergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  225. 225. 225Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  226. 226. 226Emergency!• T2C6 Common practice during net operations to get the immediateattention of the net control station when reporting an emergencyis to begin your transmission with “Priority” or “Emergency”followed by your call sign.Another way to interrupt a conversation to signal a distress call is to say theword “BREAK” several times to indicate a priority or emergency distress call.
  227. 227. 227Emergency!• T2C9 When normal communications systems are not available,an amateur station may use any means of radio communicationsat its disposal for essential communications in connection withimmediate safety of human life and protection of property.• in an emergency, anything goes!Amateur radio operatorsare well known for theirvolunteer assistance inemergencies—from localproblems to nationaldisasters like 9/11 andHurricanes Katrina and Rita.
  228. 228. 228Emergency!• T2C7 In order to minimize disruptions to an emergency traffic netonce you have checked in, do not transmit on the net frequencyuntil asked to do so by the net control station.• T2C1 FCC rules apply to proper operation of your station whenusing amateur radio at the request of public service officials.• Amateur radio operators are not relieved from FCC rules at requestfrom FBI, FEMA, or any other Federal agency.• T2C5 Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service (RACES) is a radioservice using amateur stations for emergency management orcivil defense communications.R A C E S…division of the civil defenseorganization that uses hamstations for emergency and CDcommunications
  229. 229. 229Emergency!• T2C4 Both RACES (Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service) andARES (Amateur Radio Emergency Service) organizations mayprovide communications during emergencies.In an emergency, authorized hamsparticipating in a RACES organization maycommunicate from a police helicopter.RACESARES
  230. 230. 230Emergency!• T2C10 In a formal traffic message the information needed to trackthe message as it passes through the amateur radio traffichandling system is called the preamble.• Keep track of emergency messages as they pass through the wellstructured amateur radio traffic-handling system.Hams are well knownfor their work with theRed Cross, SalvationArmy, and othersproviding emergencycommunications.
  231. 231. 231Emergency!• T2C8 Passing messages exactly as written, spoken or as receivedis usually considered to be the most important job of an amateuroperator when handling emergency traffic messages.• Write in block letters, word for word.
  232. 232. 232Emergency!• T2C11 The term "check" in reference to a formal traffic messageis a count of the number of words or word equivalents in thetext portion of the message.• include a ‘check’ to make sure all words in a message indeedwere received in their entirety.When you’re workingemergency traffic, it’simportant to make sureevery word and number ispassed along just as youreceived it. A “check”helps assure accuracy.
  233. 233. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014Emergency!Element 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  234. 234. T2C06 Which of the following is common practice during netoperations to get the immediate attention of the net controlstation when reporting an emergency?A. Repeat the words SOS three times followed bythe call sign of the reporting stationB. Press the push-to-talk button three timesC. Begin your transmission with “Priority” or“Emergency” followed by your call signD. Play a pre-recorded emergency alert tonefollowed by your call sign
  235. 235. T2C09 When may an amateur station use any means of radio communications atits disposal for essential communications in connection with immediatesafety of human life and protection of property?A. Only when FEMA authorizes it by declaring anemergencyB. When normal communications systems are notavailableC. Only when RACES authorizes it by declaring anemergencyD. Only when authorized by the local MARSprogram director
  236. 236. T2C07 What should you do to minimizedisruptions to an emergency traffic netonce you have checked in?A. Whenever the net frequency is quiet, announceyour call sign and locationB. Move 5 kHz away from the nets frequency anduse high power to ask other hams to keep clearof the net frequencyC. Do not transmit on the net frequency until askedto do so by the net control stationD. Wait until the net frequency is quiet, then ask forany emergency traffic for your area
  237. 237. T2C01 What set of rules applies to proper operation ofyour station when using amateur radio at therequest of public service officials?A. RACES RulesB. ARES RulesC. FCC RulesD. FEMA Rules
  238. 238. T2C05 What is the Radio Amateur CivilEmergency Service?A. An emergency radio service organized byamateur operatorsB. A radio service using amateur stations foremergency management or civil defensecommunicationsC. A radio service organized to providecommunications at civic eventsD. A radio service organized by amateuroperators to assist non-military persons
  239. 239. T2C04 What do RACES and ARES have incommon?A. They represent the two largest ham clubs in theUnited StatesB. Both organizations broadcast road and weathertraffic informationC. Neither may handle emergency trafficsupporting public service agenciesD. Both organizations may providecommunications during emergencies
  240. 240. T2C10 What is the preamble in a formal trafficmessage?A. The first paragraph of the message textB. The message numberC. The priority handling indicator for themessageD. The information needed to track themessage as it passes through the amateurradio traffic handling system
  241. 241. T2C08 What is usually considered to be the mostimportant job of an amateur operator whenhandling emergency traffic messages?A. Passing messages exactly as written, spoken oras receivedB. Estimating the number of people affected bythe disasterC. Communicating messages to the news mediafor broadcast outside the disaster areaD. Broadcasting emergency information to thegeneral public
  242. 242. T2C11 What is meant by the term "check" inreference to a formal traffic message?A. The check is a count of the number of words orword equivalents in the text portion of themessageB. The check is the value of a money orderattached to the messageC. The check is a list of stations that have relayedthe messageD. The check is a box on the message form thattells you the message was received
  243. 243. Technician Licensing ClassWeak Signal PropagationPresented by
  244. 244. 244Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call Signs• Control• Mind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!Weak Signal Propagation
  245. 245. 245Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  246. 246. 246Weak Signal PropagationBasically five layers:D, E, F, F1, and F2.Differences in Day-time andNight-time:D and E disappear at night.F1 and F2 combine at nightto become just F.Ionosphere Layers
  247. 247. 247Weak Signal Propagation• T5C7 Radio waves is a usual name for electromagnetic waves thattravel through space.• Electromagnetic waves are RADIO WAVES
  248. 248. 248Weak Signal PropagationObservedifferencesbetween:10-meters,20-meters40 metersHF bounces offionosphere. VHF &UHF pass through.
  249. 249. 249Weak Signal PropagationDifferent layers in the Ionosphere and their miles from the earth
  250. 250. 250Weak Signal Propagation• T3C10 The distance at which radio signals between two pointsare effectively blocked by the curvature of the Earth is theradio horizon.• VHF & UHF radio signals will generally travel “line of sight.”• VHF & UHF radio signals are blocked by the curvature of the Earth.
  251. 251. 251Weak Signal Propagation• T3C11 VHF and UHF radio signals usually travel somewhat fartherthan the visual line of sight distance between two stationsbecause the Earth seems less curved to radio waves than to light.• the Earth seems less curved to VHF and UHF radio signals.• T3C5 The term "knife-edge" propagation refers to signals that arepartially refracted around solid objects exhibiting sharp edges.Knife-Edge Diffraction
  252. 252. 252Weak Signal Propagation• T3C6 Tropospheric scatter is responsible for allowing over-the-horizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges of approximately300 miles on a regular basis.• T3C8 Temperature inversions in the atmosphere causes"tropospheric ducting".Tropospheric Ducting
  253. 253. 253Weak Signal Propagation• T3C3 A characteristic of VHF signals received via auroral reflectionis that the signals exhibit rapid fluctuations of strength and oftensound distorted.Incoming signals from a distant stationheard hundreds of miles away will soundfluttery and distorted by auroral bounce
  254. 254. 254Weak Signal Propagation• T3C7 The 6 meter band is best suited to communicating viameteor scatter.• Leonids and Geminids meteor showers provide these conditions• Bounce signals off meteor tail
  255. 255. 255Weak Signal Propagation• T3A11 The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that enablesthe propagation of radio signals around the world.Ionosphere and its layers
  256. 256. 256Weak Signal Propagation• T3C2 When VHF signals are being received from long distancesthese signals are being refracted from a sporadic E layer.• Sporadic-E refractions off ionized patches of the ionospheric E-layerare common in summer on 6-meters.• T3C9 During daylight hours is generally the best time for long-distance 10 meter band propagation.
  257. 257. 257Weak Signal Propagation• T3A9 A common effect of "skip" reflections between the Earth andthe ionosphere is the polarization of the original signal becomesrandomized.• Skip happens when signals refract and reflect off the ionosphere.• DX stations 1000 miles away come booming in.• Every 30 seconds signal goes from strong to weak and back.• Caused by random, ever changing polarization of the original signal.Critical Frequency
  258. 258. 258Weak Signal Propagation•T3C4 Sporadic E propagation is most commonly associated with occasionalstrong over-the-horizon signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands.• T3C1 UHF signals "direct" (not via a repeater) are rarely heard from stationsoutside your local coverage area because UHF signals are usually notreflected by the ionosphere.• REFRACTION IN THE IONOSPHERE:• When a radio wave is transmitted into an ionized layer, refraction, or bending of the wave, occurs.• Refraction is caused by an abrupt change in the velocity of the upper part of a radio wave as it strikesor enters a new medium.• The amount of refraction that occurs depends on three main factors:• (1) the density of ionization of the layer,• (2) the frequency of the radio wave,• (3) the angle at which the wave enters the layer• REFLECTION IN THE IONOSPHERE:• When a radio wave hits an obstacle, some or all of the wave is reflected, with a loss of intensity.• Reflection is such that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.• T3A8 The cause of irregular fading of signals from distant stations duringtimes of generally good reception is due to random combining of signalsarriving via different path lengths.
  259. 259. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014Weak SignalPropagationElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  260. 260. T5C07 What is a usual name forelectromagnetic waves that travel throughspace?A. Gravity wavesB. Sound wavesC. Radio wavesD. Pressure waves
  261. 261. T3C10 What is the radio horizon?A. The distance at which radio signalsbetween two points are effectivelyblocked by the curvature of the EarthB. The distance from the ground to ahorizontally mounted antennaC. The farthest point you can see whenstanding at the base of your antenna towerD. The shortest distance between two pointson the Earths surface
  262. 262. T3C11 Why do VHF and UHF radio signals usuallytravel somewhat farther than the visual line of sightdistance between two stations?A. Radio signals move somewhat fasterthan the speed of lightB. Radio waves are not blocked by dustparticlesC. The Earth seems less curved to radiowaves than to lightD. Radio waves are blocked by dustparticles
  263. 263. T3C05 What is meant by the term "knife-edge" propagation?A. Signals are reflected back toward theoriginating station at acute anglesB. Signals are sliced into several discretebeams and arrive via different pathsC. Signals are partially refracted aroundsolid objects exhibiting sharp edgesD. Signals propagated close to the bandedge exhibiting a sharp cutoff
  264. 264. T3C06 What mode is responsible for allowingover-the- horizon VHF and UHF communications to ranges ofapproximately 300 miles on a regular basis?A. Tropospheric scatterB. D layer refractionC. F2 layer refractionD. Faraday rotation
  265. 265. T3C08 What causes "tropospheric ducting"?A. Discharges of lightning duringelectrical stormsB. Sunspots and solar flaresC. Updrafts from hurricanes and tornadoesD. Temperature inversions in theatmosphere
  266. 266. T3C03 What is a characteristic of VHF signalsreceived via auroral reflection?A. Signals from distances of 10,000 or more miles arecommonB. The signals exhibit rapid fluctuations of strengthand often sound distortedC. These types of signals occur only during winternighttime hoursD. These types of signals are generally strongestwhen your antenna is aimed to the south (forstations in the Northern Hemisphere)
  267. 267. T3C07 What band is best suited tocommunicating via meteor scatter?A. 10 metersB. 6 metersC. 2 metersD. 70 cm
  268. 268. T3A11 Which part of the atmosphere enables thepropagation of radio signals around the world?A. The stratosphereB. The troposphereC. The ionosphereD. The magnetosphere
  269. 269. T3C02 Which of the following might behappening when VHF signals are beingreceived from long distances?A. Signals are being reflected from outerspaceB. Signals are arriving by sub-surfaceductingC. Signals are being reflected by lightningstorms in your areaD. Signals are being refracted from asporadic E layer
  270. 270. T3C09 What is generally the best time forlong- distance 10 meter band propagation?A. During daylight hoursB. During nighttime hoursC. When there are coronal mass ejectionsD. Whenever the solar flux is low
  271. 271. T3A09 Which of the following is a common effect of "skip"reflections between the Earth and the ionosphere?A. The sidebands become reversed ateach reflectionB. The polarization of the original signal israndomizedC. The apparent frequency of the receivedsignal is shifted by a random amountD. Signals at frequencies above 30 MHzbecome stronger with each reflection
  272. 272. T3C04 Which of the following propagation types ismost commonly associated with occasional strongover-the- horizon signals on the 10, 6, and 2 meter bands?A. BackscatterB. Sporadic EC. D layer absorptionD. Gray-line propagation
  273. 273. T3C01 Why are "direct" (not via a repeater) UHFsignals rarely heard from stations outside your localcoverage area?A. They are too weak to go very farB. FCC regulations prohibit them fromgoing more than 50 milesC. UHF signals are usually not reflected bythe ionosphereD. They collide with trees and shrubberyand fade out
  274. 274. T3A08 What is the cause of irregular fading of signalsfrom distant stations during times of generallygood reception.A. Absorption of signals by the "D" layer ofthe ionosphereB. Absorption of signals by the "E" layer ofthe ionosphereC. Random combining of signals arrivingvia different path lengthsD. Intermodulation distortion in the localreceiver
  275. 275. Technician Licensing ClassTalk to Outer SpacePresented by
  276. 276. 276Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)• About Ham Radio• Call Signs• Control• Mind the Rules• Tech Frequencies• Your First Radio• Going On The Air!• Repeaters• Emergency!• Weak Signal Propagation
  277. 277. 277Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)Talk to Outer Space!• Your Computer Goes Ham Digital!• Multi-Mode Radio Excitement• Run Some Interference Protection• Electrons – Go With the Flow!• It’s the Law, per Mr. Ohm!• Go Picture These!• Antennas• Feed Me with Some Good Coax!• Safety First!
  278. 278. 278Talk to Outer Space• T1A5 An amateur station located more than 50 km above the Earthssurface is considered by FCC Part 97 definition a space station.• T8B4 Any amateur holding a Technician or higher class license maymake contact with an amateur station on the International SpaceStation using 2-meter and 70 cm band amateur radio frequencies.International Space Station hasa big ham station on board.Many Astronaults arelicensed radio amateurs.The InternationalSpace Stationdownlink, FM is145.800 MHz. Usean HT to listenwhen it’s passingover you.
  279. 279. 279Talk to Outer Space• T8B3 Talking to amateur radio operators in other countries can bedone using an amateur radio satellite.• T8B10 The initials LEO tell you an amateur satellite is in a Low EarthOrbit.Orbiting Satellites
  280. 280. 280Talk to Outer Space• T8B6 A satellite tracking program can be used to determine thetime period during which an amateur satellite or space stationcan be accessed.• T8B5 A satellite beacon is a transmission from a space station thatcontains information about a satellite.Computer programsand websites can showyou where and whenan amateur satellite orthe Space Station willbe in range of yourham station.
  281. 281. 281Talk to Outer Space• T8B9 Rotation of the satellite and its antennas causes "spin fading"when referring to satellite signals.• Rotation in space makes the signals fade in and out.• This rotation keeps solar panels from overheating.Tracking and communicating throughamateur satellites can be done with across-polarized satellite antenna
  282. 282. 282Talk to Outer Space• T8B7 With regards to satellite communications Doppler shift is achange in signal frequency caused by relative motion between thesatellite and the earth station.• T8B8 The statement that a satellite is operating in "mode U/V" meansthat the satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the downlink is in the2 meter band.Frequency Bands Frequency Range ModesHigh Frequency 21 - 30 MHz Mode HVHF 144 - 146 MHz Mode VUHF 435 - 438 MHz Mode UL band 1.26 - 1.27 GHz Mode LS band 2.4 - 2.45 GHz Mode SC band 5.8 GHz Mode CX band 10.4 GHz Mode XK band 24 Ghz Mode KDoppler Effect
  283. 283. 283Talk to Outer Space• T8B2 The minimum amount of power needed to complete thecontact is how much transmitter power should be used on theuplink frequency of an amateur satellite or space station.• Just a repeat of previous mention about amount of power outputTo work satellites with your handheld, buy a small directional antenna for yoursatellite radio. You probably won’t hear much with your rubber duck antenna.
  284. 284. 284Talk to Outer Space• T1A7 The FCC Part 97 definition of telemetry is a one-way transmissionof measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument.• Type of Information• Battery condition: Full• Outside temperature: Very cold• Power output: Excellent• Solar Panels: Bring on the sun!• T1A6 The FCC Part 97 definition of telecommand is a one-waytransmission to initiate, modify or terminate functions of a device at adistance.• Types of Commands• Turning ON an amateur radio satellite• Initiating a satellite mode change• Turning OFF a distant propagation radio beacon• Changing data ports on a digital repeater system
  285. 285. Valid July 1, 2010ThroughJune 30, 2014Talk to Outer SpaceElement 2 Technician ClassQuestion Pool
  286. 286. T1A05 What is the FCC Part 97 definition of aspace station?A. Any multi-stage satelliteB. An Earth satellite that carries one ofmore amateur operatorsC. An amateur station located less than25 km above the Earths surfaceD. An amateur station located morethan 50 km above the Earths surface
  287. 287. T8B04 Which amateur stations may make contact with an amateurstation on the International Space Station using 2 meter and70 cm band amateur radio frequencies?A. Only members of amateur radio clubs atNASA facilitiesB. Any amateur holding a Technician orhigher class licenseC. Only the astronauts family memberswho are hamsD. You cannot talk to the ISS on amateurradio frequencies
  288. 288. T8B03 Which of the following can be done usingan amateur radio satellite?A. Talk to amateur radio operators in othercountriesB. Get global positioning informationC. Make telephone callsD. All of these choices are correct
  289. 289. T8B10 What do the initials LEO tell you about anamateur satellite?A. The satellite battery is in Low EnergyOperation modeB. The satellite is performing a LunarEjection Orbit maneuverC. The satellite is in a Low Earth OrbitD. The satellite uses Light Emitting Optics
  290. 290. T8B06 What can be used to determine the timeperiod during which an amateur satellite orspace station can be accessed?A. A GPS receiverB. A field strength meterC. A telescopeD. A satellite tracking program
  291. 291. T8B05 What is a satellite beacon?A. The primary transmit antenna on thesatelliteB. An indicator light that that shows whereto point your antennaC. A reflective surface on the satelliteD. A transmission from a space station thatcontains information about a satellite
  292. 292. T8B09 What causes "spin fading" when referringto satellite signals?A. Circular polarized noise interferenceradiated from the sunB. Rotation of the satellite and its antennasC. Doppler shift of the received signalD. Interfering signals within the satellite uplinkband

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