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  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 Strategic Management STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT INPUTS Strategic Management Management of Strategy Competitiveness and Globalization:PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook Concepts and Cases and Casesedition Concepts SeventhThe University of West Alabama© 2007 Thomson/South-Western.All rights reserved. Michael A. Hitt • R. Duane Ireland • Robert E. Hoskisson
  2. 2. KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVESStudying this chapter should provide you with the strategicmanagement knowledge needed to: 1. Define strategic competitiveness, strategy, competitive advantage, above-average returns, and the strategic management process. 2. Describe the 21st-century competitive landscape and explain how globalization and technological changes shape it. 3. Use the industrial organization (I/O) model to explain how firms can earn above-average returns. 4. Use the resource-based model to explain how firms can earn above-average returns.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–2
  3. 3. KNOWLEDGE OBJECTIVES (cont’d)Studying this chapter should provide you with the strategicmanagement knowledge needed to: 1. Describe vision and mission and discuss their value. 2. Define stakeholders and describe their ability to influence organizations. 3. Describe the work of strategic leaders. 4. Explain the strategic management process.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–3
  4. 4. Important Definitions • Strategic Competitiveness – When a firm successfully formulates and implements a value-creating strategy. • Strategy – An integrated and coordinated set of commitments and actions designed to exploit core competencies and gain a competitive advantage. • Competitive Advantage – When a firm implements a strategy that its competitors are unable to duplicate or find too costly to try to imitate.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–4
  5. 5. Important Definitions (cont’d) • Risk – An investor’s uncertainty about the economic gains or losses that will result from a particular investment. • Average Returns – Returns equal to those an investor expects to earn from other investments with a similar amount of risk. • Above-average Returns – Returns in excess of what an investor expects to earn from other investments with a similar amount of risk.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–5
  6. 6. Important Definitions (cont’d) • Strategic Management Process – The full set of commitments, decisions, and actions required for a firm to achieve strategic competitiveness and earn above-average returns.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–6
  7. 7. FIGURE 1.1 The Strategic Management Process© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–7
  8. 8. The 21st-Century Competitive Landscape • A Perilous Business World – Rapid changes in industry boundaries and markets – Conventional sources of competitive advantage losing effectiveness – Enormous investments required to compete globally – Severe consequences for failure • Developing and Implementing Strategy – Allows for planned actions rather than reactions – Helps coordinate business unit strategies© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–8
  9. 9. The Competitive Landscape Hypercompetition A condition of rapidly escalating competition based on: • Price-quality positioning • Competition to create new know-how and Dynamic establish first-mover Global Economy advantage Rapid technological change • Competition to protect or Strategic maneuvering invade established among global and innovative product or geographic combatants markets© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–9
  10. 10. Global Economy • The Global Economy – Goods, people, skills, and ideas move freely across geographic borders. – Movement is relatively unfettered by artificial constraints. – Expansion into global arena complicates a firm’s competitive environment. • Short-term: Where is the fastest growth likely to occur? • Long-term: Where will sustainable growth occur?© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–10
  11. 11. Global Economy (cont’d) • The March of Globalization – Increased economic interdependence among countries—the flow of goods and services, financial capital, and knowledge across country borders • Higher performance levels—quality, cost, productivity, product introduction time, and operational efficiency – Increased range of opportunities for companies competing in the 21st-century competitive landscape • Liability of foreignness—the risks of participating outside of a firm’s domestic country in the global economy • The amount of time required for firms to learn how to compete in markets that are new to them.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–11
  12. 12. Technology and Technological Changes • Technology Diffusion – The speed at which new technologies become available • Disruptive Technologies – Technologies that destroy the value of existing technology and create new markets • Perpetual Innovation – The rapidity and consistency with which new, information-intensive technologies replace older ones© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–12
  13. 13. Technological Changes • The Information Age – The ability to effectively and efficiently access and use information has become an important source of competitive advantage. – Technology includes personal computers, cellular phones, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, massive databases, electronic networks, internet trade.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–13
  14. 14. Technological Changes (cont’d) • Increasing Knowledge Intensity – Knowledge as a critical organizational resource for creating an intangible competitive advantage – Strategic flexibility: the set of capabilities used to respond to various demands and opportunities in dynamic and uncertain competitive environments – Organizational slack: slack resources that allow the firm flexibility to respond to environmental changes – Organizational capacity to learn© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–14
  15. 15. I/O Model of Above-Average Returns • Dominance of the External Environment – The industry in which a firm competes has a stronger influence on the firm’s performance than do the choices managers make inside their organizations. • Industry Properties Determining Performance – Economies of scale – Barriers to market entry – Diversification – Product differentiation – Degree of concentration of firms in the industry© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–15
  16. 16. Four Assumptions of the I/O Model External environment imposes pressures and constraints 1 that determine strategies leading to above-average returns. Most firms competing in an industry control similar 2 strategically relevant resources and pursue similar strategies. Resources used to implement strategies are highly 3 mobile across firms. Organizational decision makers are assumed to be rational 4 and committed to acting in the firm’s best interests (profit- maximizing).© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–16
  17. 17. FIGURE 1.2 The I/O Model of Above-Average Returns© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–17
  18. 18. I/O Model of Above-Average Returns • Strategy is dictated by External Environments General the external environment Global of the firm—what opportunities exist in al De De eg these environments? mo mo l /L Industry ic a gr gra • Firm develops internal Environment ap lit ph hic skills required by Po ic external environment— So So Competitor ic cio cio what can the firm do om Environment cu cu about the opportunities? on ltu ltu Ec ra ral l Technological Environment© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–18
  19. 19. Industrial Organization Model The External Environment 1. Study the external environment, especially the industry environment: • Economies of scale • Barriers to market entry • Diversification • Product differentiation • Degree of concentration of firms in the industry© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–19
  20. 20. Industrial Organization Model The External Environment Attractive Industry 2. Locate an attractive industry with a high potential for above- average returns. Attractive industry: One whose structural characteristics suggest above-average returns.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–20
  21. 21. Industrial Organization Model The External Environment Attractive Industry Strategy Formulation 3. Identify the strategy called for by the attractive industry to earn above-average returns. Strategy formulation: Selection of a strategy linked with above- average returns in a particular industry.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–21
  22. 22. Industrial Organization Model The External Environment Attractive Industry Strategy Formulation Assets and Skills 4. Develop or acquire assets and skills needed to implement a chosen strategy. Assets and skills: those assets and skills required to implement a chosen strategy.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–22
  23. 23. Industrial Organization Model The External Environment Attractive Industry Strategy Formulation Assets and Skills Strategy Implementation 5. Use the firm’s strengths (its developed or acquired assets and skills) to implement the strategy. Strategy implementation: select strategic actions linked with effective implementation of the chosen strategy.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–23
  24. 24. Industrial Organization (I/O) Model The External Environment Attractive Industry Strategy Formulation Assets and Skills Strategy Implementation Superior Returns Superior returns: earning above-average returns© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–24
  25. 25. Five Forces Model of Competition • Industry Profitability – The industry’s rate of return on invested capital relative to its cost of capital • An industry’s profitability results from interaction among: – Suppliers – Buyers – Competitive rivalry among firms currently in the industry – Product substitutes – Potential entrants to the industry© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–25
  26. 26. Five Forces Model of Competition (cont’d) • Firms earn above-average returns by: – Cost leadership • Producing standardized products or services – Differentiation • Manufacturing differentiated products for which customers are willing to pay a price premium© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–26
  27. 27. The Resource-Based Model of Above- Average Returns • Model Assumptions – Each organization is a collection of unique resources and capabilities that provides the basis for its strategy and that is the primary source of its returns. – Capabilities evolve and must be managed dynamically. – Differences in firms’ performances are due primarily to their unique resources and capabilities rather than structural characteristics of the industry. – Firms acquire different resources and develop unique capabilities.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–27
  28. 28. FIGURE 1.3 The Resource- Based Model of Above-Average Returns© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–28
  29. 29. Resource-Based Model of Above-Average Returns (cont’d) 1. Strategy is dictated by the Strategy: firm’s unique resources Competitive Advantage and capabilities. Resources 2. Find an environment in Capabilities which to exploit these assets (where are the best Core Competencies opportunities?) Environment© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–29
  30. 30. Resources and Capabilities • Resources • Capabilities – Inputs into a firm’s – Capacity of a set of production process: resources to perform • Capital equipment in an integrative • Skills of individual manner employees – A capability should not • Patents be: • Finances • So simple that it is • Talented managers highly imitable. • So complex that it defies internal steering and control.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–30
  31. 31. Resource-Based Model (cont’d) 1. Identify the firm’s resources— Resources strengths and weaknesses compared with competitors Resources: inputs into a firm’s production process© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–31
  32. 32. Resource-Based Model (cont’d) Resources 2. Determine the firm’s Capability capabilities—what it can do better than its competitors. Capability: capacity of an integrated set of resources to integratively perform a task or activity.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–32
  33. 33. Resource-Based Model (cont’d) Resources Capability 3. Determine the potential of Competitive Advantage the firm’s resources and capabilities in terms of a Competitive advantage: competitive advantage. ability of a firm to outperform its rivals.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–33
  34. 34. Resource-Based Model (cont’d) Resources Capability Competitive Advantage Attractive Industry 4. Locate an attractive industry. Attractive industry: an industry with opportunities that can be exploited by the firm’s resources and capabilities.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–34
  35. 35. Resource-Based Model (cont’d) Resources Capability Competitive Advantage Attractive Industry Strategy Formulation 5. Select a strategy that best and Implementation allows the firm to utilize its resources and capabilities Strategy formulation and relative to opportunities in implementation: strategic the external environment. actions taken to earn above average returns.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–35
  36. 36. Resource-Based Model (cont’d) Resources Capability Competitive Advantage Attractive Industry Strategy Formulation and Implementation Superior Returns Superior returns: earning above-average returns© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–36
  37. 37. Criteria for Resources and Capabilities That Become Core Competencies Valuable Rare Core Competencies Nonsubstitutable Costly to Imitate© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–37
  38. 38. How Resources and Capabilities Provide Competitive Advantage Valuable Allow the firm to exploit opportunities or neutralize threats in its external environment Rare Possessed by few, if any, current and potential competitors Costly to imitate When other firms cannot obtain them or must obtain them at a much higher cost Nonsubstitutable The firm is organized appropriately to obtain the full benefits of the resources in order to realize a competitive advantage© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–38
  39. 39. Core Competencies • When the four key criteria of resources and capabilities are met, they become core competencies. • Managerial competencies are especially important. • Core competencies serve as a source of competitive advantage, create value, and provide the opportunity for above-average returns.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–39
  40. 40. Why Two Models? • Industrial Organization • Resource-Based (I/O) Model Model – Focuses on the – Focuses on the inside environment outside of the firm the firm. Successful strategy formulation and implementation actions result only when the firm properly uses both models.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–40
  41. 41. Vision and Mission • Vision – A enduring picture of what the firm wants to be and, in broad terms, what it wants to ultimately achieve. • Stretches and challenges people and evokes emotions and dreams. • Effective vision statements are: – Developed by a host of people from across the organization. – Clearly tied to external and internal environmental conditions. – Consistent with strategic leaders’ decisions and actions.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–41
  42. 42. Vision and Mission (cont’d) • Mission – Specifies the business or businesses in which the firm intends to compete and the customers it intends to serve. – Is more concrete than the firm’s vision. – Is more effective when it fosters strong ethical standards. • Above-average returns are the fruits of the firm’s efforts to achieve its vision and mission.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–42
  43. 43. Stakeholders • Individuals and groups who can affect, and are affected by, the strategic outcomes achieved and who have enforceable claims on a firm’s performance. – Claims on the firm’s performance are enforced by the stakeholder’s ability to withhold participation essential to the firm’s survival. – The more critical and valued a stakeholder’s participation, the greater a firm’s dependency on it. – Managers must find ways to either accommodate or insulate the organization from the demands of stakeholders controlling critical resources.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–43
  44. 44. Stakeholder Involvement • Two issues affect the extent of stakeholder involvement in the firm: – How to divide returns to keep stakeholders involved? – How to increase returns so everyone has more to share?© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–44
  45. 45. FIGURE 1.4 The Three Stakeholder Groups© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–45
  46. 46. Stakeholders Capital Market Capital Market Stakeholders Stakeholders Shareholders Major suppliers of capital • Banks • Private lenders • Venture capitalists© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–46
  47. 47. Capital Market Stakeholders • Shareholders and lenders expect the firm to preserve and enhance the wealth they have entrusted to it. – Want the return on their investment (and, hence, their wealth) to be maximized. – Expect returns to be commensurate with the degree of risk to the shareholder. • Management must balance the interests of shareholders and lenders with its concerns for the firm’s future competitive ability.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–47
  48. 48. Stakeholders (cont’d) Capital Market Stakeholders Product Market Product Market Stakeholders Stakeholders • Customers • Suppliers • Host communities • Unions© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–48
  49. 49. Product Market Stakeholders • Customers – Demand reliable products at low prices • Suppliers – Seek loyal customers willing to pay highest sustainable prices for goods and services • Host communities – Want companies willing to be long-term employers and providers of tax revenues while minimizing demands on public support services • Union officials – Want secure jobs and desirable working conditions© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–49
  50. 50. Stakeholders (cont’d) Capital Market Stakeholders Product Market Stakeholders Organizational Organizational Stakeholders Stakeholders •Employees •Managers •Nonmanagers© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–50
  51. 51. Organizational Stakeholders • Employees – Expect a dynamic, stimulating and rewarding work environment. – Are satisfied by a company that is growing and actively developing their skills.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–51
  52. 52. Strategic Leaders • Strategic Leaders – People located in different parts of the firm who are using the strategic management process to help the firm reach its vision and mission. • Prerequisites for Effective Strategic Leadership – Hard work – Thorough analyses – Honesty – Desire for accomplishment – Common sense© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–52
  53. 53. Strategic Leaders (cont’d) • Organizational Culture – The complex set of ideologies, symbols, and core values that are shared throughout the firm and that influence how the firm conducts business. • The Value of a Functional Organizational Culture – Supports effective delegation of strategic responsibilities – Provides support for strategic leaders – Encourages social energy – Fosters of respect for others© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–53
  54. 54. Predicting Outcomes of Strategic Decisions: Profit Pools • Profit Pool – The total profits earned in an industry at all points along the value chain • Identifying the components of a profit pool: – Define the pool’s boundaries. – Estimate the pool’s overall size. – Estimate size of each value-chain activity in the pool. – Reconcile the calculations—which activity provides the most profit potential?© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–54
  55. 55. Strategic Management Process • Study the external and internal environments. • Identify marketplace opportunities and threats. • Determine how to use core competencies. • Use strategic intent to leverage resources, capabilities and core competencies and win competitive battles. • Integrate formulation and implementation of strategies. • Seek feedback to improve strategies.© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 1–55

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